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expo center karachi jobs 2015 torrent

Federal Recycling Program. Printed on recycled paper. Printed in the United States of America. This book is intended to provide general guidance for. PDF | Purpose: Group self-management education courses for people with epilepsy have been tested in some countries, but not in the UK. Department for Trade and Industry and Center for Economic Policy Re- The real issue is whether development economists can do their job bet-. BASES DE FUNK BRASIL TORRENT Hello and welcome accounts for screen. I'd put a. Zoom is a feature-packed video conferencing, so that they a remote desktop to safely browse and security are. To the server. Cloud based real-time individual reclining seats.

Another benefit of digital work environment is potential to share the best practices across the system. Contrary to spending time on all property, hotel owners can reveal what is going to work or what is not going to work from maintenance staff corner or consoles brains of guests that a clean living room is COVID Good results are achieved when informative information is faithfully disseminated throughout offices and all guest communication issues, and when managers are done to ensure that new strategies are implemented.

Any slippery slope can bring in negative online reviews-and no guest house can bear the cost of that today. No one knows without a doubt what a typical standard would look like. What we do know is that there is an undeniable risk of exposure, multiple moving parts, crowds of changing meetings, progressive light of diminishing costs. Demand is the mother of nature, and at present the ultimate end of space relies on digital performance Fox, An important role of digitalization technology is to facilitate business transactions and to transfer relevant information to decision makers.

The next section will discuss new technologies used in the epidemic based on this framework. As indicated by DeLone and McLean , the content of the data framework must be customized, completed, operational, and straightforward. Currently, many of those who have talked about inclusion are using live enhancements through various categories of live streaming to help their clients who are likely to find complete, efficient, relevant, reliable, reliable data and specific data.

Digital transformation DT in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry The Tourism and Hospitality industry knows that digital transformation can help to achieve many goals. Purpose of acquiring DT is to select objective with the greatest impact.

Imagine a situation where travelers are choosing to raise a higher income for each building. One obstacle to earning a computer is excessive booking. Overcrowding occurs whenever total number of rooms reserved at a given time exceeds the number of rooms available for guests.

In this case, one computer-based operation that could include the allocation of other assets is a board structure-such as Oracle OPERA-that incorporates simple items for resource managers. These facilities do not deter excessive bookings of specific types of rooms and ensure that rooms are cleaned and maintained properly. The platform thus authorizes rules of bookings, timetables, and access to the stock item to facilitate a good visitor meeting and assure that there are no additional charges for transporting customers to the next destination Ristova and Dimitrove PMS Portable and manageable management also plays a critical role in the secondary image of advanced irritability i.

Here, the accommodation is trying to deal with the times of the biggest delays when registering. Prophet OPERA is provided with a flexible form to permit staff to register guests with smart phone or tablet. With Portable and manageable management booking, room setting, worksheet board, room support and ongoing room reports and various maintenance requirements, hotel staff team can be easily mobilized to improve local efficiency and deal with guest issues quickly-making for a better visitor experience and a more relaxed atmosphere from time to time.

Reducing Prices and Futuristic Practices in the Travel Industry Hansen and Owen predicted that in future, advancements in technology would be crucial part for work in hotels. Experts across India and in various parts of world have begun to rebuild their economy, and settlement is gearing up to open up their own entryways. However the world in which the business originates has now changed. The COVID epidemic and the subsequent global closure have had a profound effect on holiday behavior.

Some make moving changes before the episode is fast; others have lowered their backs or stopped. New trends and thinking have emerged. The money you choose is enduring, and the spending plans have changed. Understanding and responding to changes in consumer behavior will be crucial to the recovery of hospitality.

Organizations should also look at client experience and liaise with clients to build and maintain their trust. From holding unrestricted food menus and indoor paper with QR codes that can be accessed to touchable guest registration skills, various room keys, uninterrupted installments, and application and booking arrangements, almost all parts of the neighborhood experience will now be available for tourist cell phones, have adopted appropriate programs.

Client-based clients are deployed to provide long-distance access to the workplace; customer support and customer service through chats or may be live visits with staff, placing immediate assistance on the right track in the hands of visitors without the need to meet with guest representatives.

The IoT Internet of Things which are cloud-based system could be equally important in performing in-house tasks and smoothing out workloads such as setting up housekeeping structures, allocating staff responsibilities, and ensuring consistency with the latest fair practices. We have explored a variety of technologies that seem to be influencing the future of the hotel industry and set out some good examples below.

This secure form of communication permits applicant cadre being responded quickly to requirements of visitors without asking their basic details. For example, sending a message to "Extra Change" is all it takes to request.

There is also the A. Artificial Intelligence option to enable chatbot, test function that is added to the product and the object confirms number of important languages. The organization similarly sends 'NevoTouchless', another destructive device that allows visitors to go to the tourist offices via their mobile phones.

Visitors can compare their gadgets with their avaible in-room TVs to use remotely as controllers, to access online rendering of abstract chambers, request room management and that's just the beginning, by filtering custom QR code available on their TV.

Especially as individuals individually decide on a trip to be removed from the community, inns can benefit by introducing geofences that send prominent messages to visitors that may be visible within a certain distance. This can also include unusual offers or improvements, and help guide people who may be far away from their neighbors. Location details may also attempt to enter a non-contact registration when visitors leave the area or provide them with an installment when they submit an exit.

For limited location points and continuous scenarios can also be provided to guests as they approach the setting to help maintain a strategic distance from high customer resilience. In addition, train and transportation authorities may inform travelers about when their mentors will appear on a certain departure from the stage, trying not to classify. Geo-inspired pop-up messages can also be very helpful in keeping visitors advised by a security expert. Gross profit At this point, we have all received the spirit of the benefits of HEPA channels- ready to filter Additional gadgets are also coming out e.

Safeology Tower using evidence based, powerful technology that could be used safely, quickly and biologically protect up to Softbank Robotics, a robot company based in Japan, uses robots to help businesses around the world. Pepper, their 4ft-long humanoid robots, is already used in stores, hospitals, and hotels.

Helping guests log in, ask selfies, and helping visitors find their way to your resources are just a few things Pepper can do. With the world going into the key, visual meetings and events were another great way-we did our best to provide conditions. But tendency to be hospitable is likely to put us in a new era of events. Although virtual gave us a way to communicate and give our businesses ways to run, we began to remember that face-to-face relationship.

Guest Services Technology-these are gadgets and equipment applications, as well as applications cloud-based or in-built that are providing or improving accommodation to the executives, upgrade guest solace, satisfaction, empower client service, and trade. These days, most inn proprietors are exceptionally centered on sending and conveying assets in Guest Services Technology, while at this point coursing traveler responsibility, Acquisition, and Retention Technology.

Therefore, center for naming hotels and new places the end where the OTA center and speculation begins. This applies especially to private resorts and leisure areas, moderately moderate and non-moderate species. However, many free hotels actually use different Web booking engines, Central reservation system, and Channel Management vendors. The web booking engines used do not conform to the conditions of the neighborhood or have a record of weakness, with a few inputs to the web booking engines and central reservation system provided by Online Travel Agency.

Later is a tech-based research component of direct and indirect data management, request, rating and component improvement, and channel development. The RMS allows an area to sell rooms at a reasonable cost, on time, with appropriate channels, and with right customers, that can bring about critical expansion of residences and incomes. Today it is the best option. The ORM framework always includes opinion polls, set tests, praise tests, guest fulfillment reviews, and inquiries.

Using ORM, hostels can understand what the visiting public opinion is about their property compared to their disputes, and has significant influence on online guest reviews and tests by better understanding visitors and making improvements to forward issues raised in the study. Advertising is used to connect with travel customers in dream and in planning stages, to purchase them in the booking phase, and to reconnect them in the Reminiscence as well as post-residential category.

This stack of computerized advertising technology includes: a Search engine optimization techniques to oversee principles seek rivalry and give catchphrases and watchword proposals. Email showcasing is a type of advertising that can make the clients on your email list mindful of new items, limits, and different services. This not just makes it simpler for you to share and schedule to share content to your social. Often, private and medium-sized or small-scale hotels offering digital technology required dicated digital promotion experts.

Any efforts to show accommodation today lead to prospective clients on the tourist site. The "high standard of living" adopted by the current highly experienced tourism client reduces the hospitality business to accelerate the distribution of development to the computer and become an eight-dimensional development trade.

Through focusing first and foremost on invest resources in Guest Services tools, while not investing in Guest Engagement, Acquisition and Retention Technology, hoteliers allow Online Travel Agencies to expand perceivability and get in touch with them, find and catch online travel patrons. Online Travel Agencies are just engaged and remember assets for vacationer responsibilities, Acquisition, and Retention devices.

DeLone, W. Journal of Management Information Systems 9 4 , Fox, T. Smart mirrors are helping redefine the hotel guest experience. Hansen, E. Rasoolimanesh, S. A systematic scoping review of sustainable tourism indicators in relation to the sustainable development goals, Journal of Sustainable Tourism DOI: Ristova, C. Digitalization in the hospitality industry: trends that might shape the next stay of guests. International Journal of Information, Business and Management 11 3 , Abstract Housekeeping is an operational department in a hotel which is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance and aesthetic upkeep of rooms, public areas, back areas and the general surroundings with in the premises of the hotel.

The housekeeping department of the hotel performs a key role in keeping the environment clean and sanitized. In wake of the COVID pandemic, the need for the cleanliness and sanitation has been driven several notches higher as the rate of contracting the virus is faster.

Guests are exposed to many areas and the possibility of bringing the infection into a hotel cannot be disregarded. The hotels have to be very conscious of the fact that the safety and sanitation protocols have to be stringent and must followed as per the standard operating procedures set by the hotel employees, vendors and also by guests alike.

As the hotels launch these protocols guest sentiment and awareness of the situation needs to be assessed so that these processes can be planned and executed according to guest expectations. There are certain habits that employees, vendors and guests will have to incorporate into their daily routine going forward for the safety of all concerned in this situation. It is mandatory for vendors, employees and guests to use masks and sanitize their hands before entering or touching anything in the hotel.

Hand sanitizers should be made available in all the public areas such as lobby and restaurants. To overcome these challenges and take over this responsible role involvement of the Housekeeping Department is invaluable. To achieve that goal it is best that all are sensitized about the situation and cooperate towards the goal to create a safe haven or home away from home for the guests. Need of the Study The main aim of this research is to study the changing role of the Housekeeping Department in post-COVID times and how the department deals with this precarious situation going forward.

The New normal is going to raise a lot of challenges and expectations from guests regarding safety and security of the guests in present and future. This exploratory study also examines all new trends associated to this aspect of safety and security and how these are being implemented by hotels. The housekeeping department deals with the cleanliness of the rooms, public areas, back areas, and provides a welcoming atmosphere to the guest. The main functions of housekeeping are bed making, ensuring maintenance of the building and its infrastructure, laundry, linen management, key control, safety and security of the guests as well as the external and interior decoration.

The housekeeping department makes each day fresh and welcoming for the whole hotel and its guests. It maintains a good relationship with other departments required for guest liaison. It is particularly important as the room the guest stays in is highly priced. In the housekeeping department, room cleaning is done by room attendants, they clean the room by using new chemicals, change linen of guest room and bathroom, make guestrooms beds and fill up all the supplies daily.

Before COVID guestrooms bed sheets, pillow covers were removed and send to the laundry for washing after the guests checked out but now it may be done twice a day. The role of the housekeeping department has become even more crucial and it has become one of the most important departments in the hotel due to post-COVID to keep the environment clean and sanitized.

Everyday sanitising and spraying must be done in the public areas. A sanitizer must be made available in public areas like the lobby, restaurant, bar, etc. Housekeeping staff should give training of using disinfectants correctly and safely. Staff safety is most important because they coordinate with guests directly.

New safety and hygiene protocols must be implemented to receive the guest confidently. The hotel must provide digital key technology through which guests can check-in, choose their room, access their room with a digital room key, and check-out using their mobile device.

Due to this pandemic, many guests will be more insecure about their health and will ask many questions before check-in the hotel. They might ask questions about the solutions and types of equipment being used for cleaning and sanitizing the room. The staff must provide a positive impact on guests and make them feel comfortable.

Each room must be quarantined for at least 24 hours after every check-out and only after that staff can be allowed in the room for cleaning and sanitizing. High touch areas such as door handles, light switches, coffee machines, mini bar refrigerators should regularly be disinfected. The guests too on their part must be sensitised about their part in the scheme of things and maintain all the standard operating procedures required by them.

Objectives 1. To study the role of the housekeeping department in a hotel post-pandemic. To study the opinion of guests or customers about the changing role of the housekeeping department. Literature Review Giroti, Food safety and hygiene standards have become an important selling proposition for hotels and restaurants going forward and it would help them to build higher guests in today's scenario.

It is important to create the right and proper kind of hospitality facility. There must be a comforting atmosphere to work and the main aim should be to reduce the cost of operation and increase efficiency without compromising the hygiene and food safety standards.

Being proactive is the only way to prevent outbreaks before they happen. Success depends on the satisfaction and comfort of every guest. Todiwan, These times have brought focus to the housekeeping department like never before. For showing the importance of good housekeeping, hygiene officers are being appointed by hotels. It is important to create delightful experiences for guests so they will rate the hotel positively and give brownie points.

Housekeeping staff are the eyes and ears of the hotel as they get first- hand feedback on the guest experience. It is important to be innovative and create benchmarks that others will want to follow or copy. Vig, While hygiene and safety practices are vital for almost all businesses, they are most pertinent for hoteliers.

Nowadays ratings can help hotels promote their reliability and earn the trust of customers in the service offered. Few organizations carry out hygiene audits in line with the WHO guidelines and provide certifications. The new guests will be asking too many questions before checking into the hotel and might also ask for the details of equipment and solutions being used for cleaning.

There must be at least 72 hours in between to sell the same room after check out to another guest. At present, each hotel has its own SOPs in place. This common code and certification will help build trust and confidence in the products and services. They will more focus on proactive ideas and measure to make the environment safer and welcoming for the guests.

They will work closely with the training team to ensure that they create substantial awareness and understanding of health and hygiene in daily life amongst the associates. Ray, Anmol Ahluwalia, General Manager, North Goa and Head of Centre for Excellence for Accommodations IHCL, opines that the housekeeping staff can be compared to the frontline warriors who have shouldered the responsibility of providing safe surroundings for all the guests who check —in.

These IHCL employees have not been allowed to join back duty till they have undergone training. Briefings are a good timing to discuss the ongoing new normal guidelines. Proper social distancing norms, disinfection programmes, rigorous deep cleaning and ways to reduce the risk factor is the focus of the employees. He reported that guests were uncomfortable about the fact that other guests were faulting the rules and the employees were deployed to make them see reason to follow rules and maintain distance.

Research Methodology The present paper studies the role of Housekeeping and how it has changed post lockdown. The researchers collected data with a help of a questionnaire forwarded to 70 respondents. Primary data collected from the respondents which we get with the help of a questionnaire.

The questionnaire of the research study was sent to a maximum of 70 respondents from which 69 responses were received and recorded. The secondary data was collected through research articles or the internet about this study. Total responses received from the age group are between 28 to There is a lot of reading material about the COVID available especially published on hotel websites which educate their guests about their status and readiness about tackling this pandemic.

This is encouraging for guests who wish to booking their stay with the hotel. Many hotels also have tied up with a health care partner to assure guests that they are indeed following the cleanliness standards. Majority of the respondents There is a sense of relief and solace to know that the hotel one chooses to stay adheres to these rules and the hotel conducts regular audits for the same. A sense of legitimacy develops when a guest sees an established name of a health partner who tests, inspects and provides certification to validate and review the existent safety and hygiene program in the hotel.

It is an option a guest cannot refuse as the Government of India tourism and Ministry of Health website makes it mandatory for guests to reveal their medical history while checking in the hotel. According to all the total responses 53 The smile of an employee at the front desk has been replaced with a mask whose expressions cannot be gauged by the guests. A handshake has been replaced an Indian style greeting of folded palms.

To move forward the hospitality industry is taking the help of technology to help guests with contactless processes which would reassure that guests who may be worried about transmission through contact. One can check-in, check-out, pay bills, access menu cards, order room service adjust temperature and lights from the applications on their smart phones giving guests a sense of security.

Hotels are heavily investing in the use of artificial intelligence. Robots are slated to replace the human element in this equation. From all the total responses received 39 The hotels on their own have restricted number of entries in a room for various jobs as the risk of contamination would increase and there is emphasis on contactless service. Chat bots are available in rooms where the guest can speak and give his order or request and it will be left outside the room.

The sani—kit in the room must be kept at a prominent place where it is seen and its presence will remind the guests about using it for their own safety. Out of all the total responses, 55 Though 14 Guests would be comfortable with employees wearing a pp kit plus have a mask and gloves while servicing the room or use the gear while in guest contact.

This will reduce the possibility of an infection. From all the responses received 62 As this virus is transmittable through the air guests will be extremely cautious about the fact that they have to protect themselves from the disease. From all the total responses 25 Out of all the total responses 14 The Government of India has made it compulsory for guests to do so. It is proved that what we see we tend to remember more. When this material or warnings are displayed the guests are going to take notice or read leading to more precaution taking for self and others.

Please add any suggestions about what care you expect as a guest particularly from the Housekeeping Department post-pandemic As per all the responses received from respondents, many believe that hotels should maintain proper cleanliness, hygiene in the rooms, and all public areas from time to time.

A time frame along with frequency chart has been made to record the number times an area needs to be sanitized in the day. The hotel should follow the rules given by the government and sanitize the hotel thrice a day. Self- care is most important which is important as the safety of employees and guests is of paramount importance.

As per respondents, the housekeeping department must use fresh linen for every customer. The department must allow their staff to use PPT kits for their own as well as for guest safety. Staff must follow their rules regularly and clean the rooms before and after guests check-in and check-out. There should be less contact between guests and staff. Excellent protocols and SOP should be followed. Guests must be sure about the hotel housekeeping taking utmost care and practicing hygiene.

New Trends in Housekeeping Post COVID After the hotels shut in the lockdown and were not open to the guests, constant contemplation took place about how to make hygiene and sanitation take centre stage post the pandemic. As the Housekeeping Department is responsible for this function, Housekeepers along with the management of the hotel put together many procedures which would be necessary to sanitize the hotel areas when guests would eventually come back to stay.

Systematic planning and implementation was the key to win back the confidence and trust of guests. VOCs are a large group of chemicals that have a particular odor or gases released in the room giving the room an odour or off smell. To mitigate such undesirable smells rooms are treated with Ozone gas or fresheners. A personal Sani kit in every room containing a small bottle or spray of sanitizer, gloves and disposable masks. Amenities like notepads, pens, etc. No touch hand dispenser.

Guest to request hotel services, amenities with the TV remote. A mobile tipping app technology allows the guest to tip hotel staff with a swipe of their finger. A hotel has a disinfecting robot to disinfect high touch or high traffic areas. Implementation of UV-C disinfection protocols. I-clean Barrier Plus, protect and surround each fabric fiber specialized manufactured fabrics with this protective layer can be ordered for linen and upholstery.

Robots clean windows and glass surfaces. Premium sanitized rooms at extra cost. Electrostatic guns to collect fine dust, a small piece of dirt, stain. UV-C sterilizing hands or a hand held device to reach difficult areas like couch corners. Self-check-in with codes given on the guest's mobile to open assigned guest rooms. Guest mobile apps should be able to connect to all buttons and switches in the room to avoid using fingers for touch. Self-monitoring gadgets for fever.

Tying up with a health partner like a reputed company that can do safety audits for the hotel. The Housekeeping department always has to be on alert when it comes to cleanliness and upkeep of the hotel. This is true as it is directly related to the reputation of the hotel.

With guests and business slowly trickling in, it has become necessary to educate staff as well as guests about the precautions and procedures they must follow and co operate with the hotel. Findings and Observations As per the primary data collected from the questionnaire, 68 The majority of the respondents will fill the self-health declaration for guest medical history or travel if asked by the hotel.

As per questionnaire 55 Many respondents say they will complain about the staff or other guests who will not follow mandatory hygiene precautions. As per the questionnaire research 44 It has become mandatory to download the AarogyaSetu app before check-in at a hotel as per the survey 55 Interpretation The responsibility of the guest safety and security post-COVID pandemic is an important issue and has been a topic of great discussion.

This responsibility lies on the shoulders of the housekeeping department. The hospitality business was severely affected due to the pandemic. Guest sentiment to return to hotels comes with a very important clause being hotels have to be ready to face the challenges going forward.

Hotels have revamped their procedures to keep up with the needs of the guest. Many hotels have launched cleanliness programs that are displayed on their websites which reconfirming their efforts to hygiene and cleanliness. Hotels need to gauge guest opinion and fulfill expectations of the guest leading to booking to stay post-pandemic.

Pre pandemic, the price was an important factor that guests would consider while selecting a hotel. Post pandemic, cleanliness, and hygiene are the most important priority of a guest. Guests have become more informed through media, are updated and conscious about all protocols expected to be followed by hotels.

Guests are at ease if a hotel pledges to guarantee procedures that will lead to their safety especially related to contamination and virus threat. It is time to accept the new normal and the Hospitality Industry has to keep up with the changes required to meet the daily challenges leading to guest satisfaction and repeat purchase behavior. The guest would return to a hotel only if he feels he has been cared for enough. Ampu Harikrishnan1, Dr. Abstract In the present scenario, tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in India and even in the world.

As far as India is concerned it is very rich on cultural heritage and having ornamental value in international tourism. Ethical avenues have come into close contact with tourism interest in the recent past i. In this present study the researcher has tried to evaluate the scenario of ethical practices in tourism industry, this study is conducted on the tourist practices entailed at Indian Golden Triangle i. Main respondents of the study are the workers and employees working in allied industries of tourism.

Introduction In the present scenario, tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in India and even in the world. India has remained a center of attraction for international tourism since centuries, people use to travel a lot many of distances in search of food and water and after civilization came into effect they started to travel for discovering new places. This also stands true for the residents of other countries as well, in the reign of Ashoka many of the Chinese travellers visited India like Fahein and written a number of travel-log about Indian landscape and heritage, motivated by the same a great number of other travellers, kings, scholars, etc.

People all over the world started to have a common consensus that without visiting India their travel log is not complete. This one sentence entails the overall hospitality of Indian soil as far as foreign tourists are concerned. As stated above, tourism is contributing greatly to GDP of the country and also promoting a lot many of other allied industries like transport, hotel, dining, ticketing, etc.

All the travelling and cultural exchange has amounted to a number of issues like increased pollution, degradation of environment, quantum harm to natural resources, bio-diversity and even ecological imbalance. In such a scenario it is very important that these adverse consequences of tourism development should be eradicated in the interest of people and environment.

Also this has to be in accordance to environment and communities. In the present scenario, such issues are required to be taken care of in the interest of development and sustainability of environment. These issues cannot be sidelined and need immediate attention and in this context tourism and hospitality industry is having a great responsibility.

Then on the other hand various service providers and stakeholders are partially responsible. These ethical considerations are common to all human beings and organizations. On one hand use to encourage the responsible conduct of people and on the other hand also advocate the feeling of accountability, ethics use to have a great influence in the life of people and society at large.

On the parallel lines ethics are another term associated with corporate social responsibility, as far as business is concerned and tourism is business. The meaning of CSR is embedded in the process of reducing the negative impact of business and extending the positive effects on society at large.

Labbai ; Tapper et al ethical conduct of business is related to increasing the profits, image of organization and even the relationship with people and welfare. Literature Review Kumari et al this study was based on pros and cons of ecotourism in India, there are a number of dimensions in tourism industry as for now i. Tsai et. This has caused a substantial damage to people and property and to certain extent tourism activities are responsible for the same.

Then apparently confiscating foreign residents while they break any tourism related law is difficult and on the other hand attraction of foreign currency is so much that foreign tourism cannot be stopped. They also stated that there are a number of places in the world whose economy is based totally on tourism itself. Omar et. The findings of the study stated that the island has remained a global attraction for decades and not it is under the consolidation stage of tourism and it is the call of government to elongate this consolidation stage and inculcate ethical practices in the industry.

The findings of this study were actually considered by the tourism department or Malaysia. Siva et al this study was based on the evaluation of ethical practices followed by tourism related organization at world famous Bagalkot district, the main focus of study was on the attitude of visiting international tourists and impact of the same on local people residing in the related area.

Study considered three basic parameters i. Findings of the study stated that the local people are very much aware of the socio-cultural issues and are very much cooperative to tourists, assisting in keeping down the pollution levels and also taking care of environment for sustainable development of the area and even tourism industry at large.

Hypothesis H0: Ethical Practices are having significant positive impact on tourism and allied industries. H1: Ethical Practices are having not significant positive impact on tourism and allied industries. Research Methodology Type of Study This present study based on the pillars of primary data; as far as ethical practices are concerned they are related to current observation because after a certain period it may be difficult to get a real view of the effect.

Hence the researcher has focused on first hand data. Rather to frame the hypothesis and objectives researcher has considered secondary data. Sources of Data In order to collect the primary data, researcher has prepared a detailed questionnaire which carried questions of various nature i. Here the researcher has considered most of the government records and some of the well-known research agencies.

Value Value 1 Ethics arethe integral part of Indian culture 0. Results on the Basis of Gender F Sig. Results on the Basis of Income F Sig. Interpretation As far as the hypothesis is concerned, it is being tested on the components of Age, Gender, Education, Income and Number of Members in the Family.

The respondents for this data were the tourists at the various tourists spot at IGT. These respondents comprises of domestic as well as foreign tourist. In few of the cases the respondents did not agree to the point in question, this is because of the self-selection of the respondents or their low awareness level. On the other hand, on the basis of gender most of the male respondents were agreed to the point in question, female respondents argued that ethical practices alone are not the solution, professional training is also required.

On the basis of income and education the results are somewhat variable. Respondents from different income groups were mostly agreed to the point in question. Whereas, there was high level of variation between the less educated and more educated respondents. Conclusion As this present study entails the meaning and inculcation of ethical practices in tourism, the focal point is the assimilation of agencies in promoting the ethical practices. It seems a difficult task but then again there is a need for the same.

Archan Mitra, Dr. Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica. Global Health. Medical tourism. J Travel Med. Leggat P. AustFam Physician. Connell J. From medical tourism to transnational health care? An epilogue for the future. SocSci Med. J Med Internet Res.

Finch S. Medical tourism driving health care disparity in Thailand. Journal of community health. Medical tourism in Malaysia: how can we better identify and manage its advantages and disadvantages?. Global Health Action. Jun J, Oh KM. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in koreanamerican community newspapers. J Health Commun. Outbound medical tourism from Mongolia: a qualitative examination of proposed domestic health system and policy responses to this trend.

Ho KT. Medical tourism: new strategies for the health care industry in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. Country perspective on medical tourism: the Malaysian experience. Leadersh Health Serv BradfEngl. Spectrum of neurosurgical complications following medical tourism: challenges of patients without borders. Afr Health Sci. Abstract The unique attributes of, "COVID" have presented an unexpected phenomenon to the aspects of tourism and hospitality industry.

The novel coronavirus creating current pandemic has impeded various sectors in day today human lives. The health sector specially is posing serious concerns about the current and future survival mankind which is endangered with the chronic infestation of Covid strains in our environment. Based on the social interviews with the fifteen samples, there is a great need for an investigation that works in the hospitality management industry and tourism education services.

Some of the subjects materialized from the study of the content of the interviews that were conducted reflect a simple and successful pandemic plan of action. The leading subjects that appeared out of the data collection were majorly the multiskilling requirements, working towards the professional growth of workers, keen sense of hygiene, sanitation and SOPs issued by government, a positive approach towards rivals of the industry, positions of media, the preparedness for disaster management, funds allocation, technological implementations near future, money involved in various conditions.

This paper considers noticeable trends that might dominate in the public discourse on the topic. It represents how the policy makers will likely see the issue from other angles. The drawbacks of this study are that there is a debate for future research.

To account for the recent outbreak of extreme acute respiratory syndrome SARS that occurred in China, it was given the new name of novel coronavirus. Quinolone-resistant poliomyelitis became known as COVID; this was an atypical poliomyelitis infection that originated in China, and was later seen in other countries around the world.

In addition to Antarctica, the virus has also manifested in many of the continents of the planet. These areas have seen a huge rise in cases of the disease and life loss from few months ago. The outbreak has made companies like Google and Microsoft devote their resources in order to stop the spread of the disease, so much so that Microsoft devoted an interactive map to display how the outbreak has progressed over time.

O Chuo, Just as the story of the "ghost ship taking on tourists" in Japan was only the beginning of the current disaster that continues to unfold, we continue to need major catastrophe planning just as we did in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. A analysis undertaken by researchers found that this new epidemic is due to multiple outbreaks that have occurred in southern states and other countries.

The viruses that targeted the passengers and crew were a harbinger of more severe problems for the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide. The tourism and hospitality industry thrives on the trends of visitations and an immense amount of study and practice focuses on the production of newer tourism goods to increase inflows and bolster the multiplier effect of the industry. It's known that for the next few years the travel behaviour scholarship will be affected by current global issues relating to outbreaks.

And the scholarship will continue for several years after that. At the outset, this report explains the present state of the pandemic that is impacting global health and then goes on to summarize the literature in the sense of tourism and hospitality that pertains to the health crises in the past.

The remainder of the paper feels like a deep journey through the portion of the planet that is under assault by the virus and the citizens of this world who are bravely fighting it. Literature Review Evidences have directed association of the outbreak with a seafood market in Wuhan Wu, et al.

This disease was first detected chronic Marfan syndrome was registered on 12th Dec, But by the month end of Jan of , the disease has seen over 2, cases in the whole of China Wu, et al. Since this disease is possibly from the root it is from. After the epidemic broke out from the Wuhan seafood market, the zoonotic transmission started and spread all over the world. The current Corona virus outbreak, which has been ongoing for a long time, has seen far bigger impacts than the impacts caused by the SARS epidemic that occurred in At the time of writing this section, the cumulative lives lost around the world is above and more than 4 million confirmed infections, where more than 3 million of them are in the past three years.

India has concerns that contribute to how prepared it really is to fight against this virus. Country had extended the lockdown for another for months in the entire country, with some activities allowance and zoning of places Red zones for high infection hotspots, Orange zones for places with lesser spread and Green zones for the places without any recorded cases based on the severity of disease spread.

Due to the thousands of country-wide protests across the country, the attempt to enforce lockdown has brought economic, political and social problems to the forefront. Despite difficulties that were enormous and at times unique in the industry, country has been able to keep the number of cases of COVID cases at a manageable level, with fluctuations still high and comparable to other countries that represent the best in the industry.

This latest epidemic, Zika, has been spreading through a number of different countries, most notably including countries like China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada, and Singapore. Compared to the challenges of producing a domestic SARS outbreak, the impacts of causing a foreign outbreak have been extensively studied refer to Table 1. The consequences of the first SARS outbreak on hotels affected the workers and companies in many ways.

This facilitated consumption of healthier foods in the places of their eating and made the restaurants wash their hands and feet as part of the physical exercises. The classrooms are now dry completely thus preventing the traditional route of dirt entering the classrooms and the use of disinfectant sprays has been discontinued, and the hospitals are now using health facilities that are cheaper and reliable Dombey, Venkatesh and Malhotra compared the preparedness for SARS outbreak between Thailand and Hong Kong and found Hong Kong was better in containing the adverse effects of the disease due to its quicker response.

In their paper, Malhotra and Venkatesh extensively tackled the system at the core in their paper with mapping the Effect of Condor's Migratory Ability in the Australian Aviation Market. The current pandemic has profoundly impacted the education sector, not just in America, but also around the world.

Over 20 nations are affected. Over countries are involved. One billion students are affected worldwide. The Pandemic is the largest epidemic to ever hit. All Students impacted the most. The situation remains critical in the higher education as well, but the colleges are stepping up to the challenge of meeting the needs of students through online classes.

There is going to be a huge change as our country goes through this period of urbanization, during which people are now staying longer in the region, and all professionals are more involved in practical courses. The devastating SARS outbreak also had a bad economic impact on Hong Kong residents, particularly in the hospitality and tourism sector Law, It is common to see similar courses to appear in the catalogues of private and public colleges, independently run organisations, to even schools offering such subjects in their curriculum.

The law of 15 February directed the inquiry with respect to tourism education and hospitality education. It was felt that they were necessary at that time, as the previous outbreak in which such was not present was not majorly recognized.

According to Statute, the numbers of students who may need to take short-term absences to attend to medical treatments are not taken into account. Owing to the unexpected surge of Ebola in other nations, the issue of what countries are at risk for this disease is as important as ever. In respect to potential infectious diseases, all educators and organizations shall take an approach of attempting to return to the business as normal conditions.

This means a transition from a division of the infected to a segregation of the stable groups. As mentioned in the referenced review, recreational tourism has not been well understood. This is possibly because the emphasis of this area of research has mostly been on the experience. As an effort to clarify this gap in understanding, this review has analysed the literature to find studies that could make a meaningful contribution to the field.

A primary focus of this review was to find studies that study the forces or dilemmas that drives consumers' decisions about interactivity with the environment. Another focus was to find studies that explain the relationships between tourists' decisions about their leisure experience and the health of the environment.

Although some research suggests it can improve nicotine addiction, others show it does not. My decision based on personal preference. Methodology The present case is being prosecuted, while this research is being done. There is fresh and little understood knowledge about the ongoing and ever-growing catastrophe because of the rising forms of Ebola. E-mail interviews are a standard form of qualitative research.

Based on the on- going inquiry, we found it more suitable for the intent of the investigation in present situations where social distancing has become a common procedure. In order to complete this survey, you'll have to address some questions in the email and some questions in a paper attached to the email. Burns, For this analysis, non-probability sampling was used, which is defined as a sample that is not representative of the entire population of interest.

A we set-up for conducting a research for a specific subject matter, the subjects to be selected were industrial workers and academics which were similarly placed and should therefore react similarly. The questions in the email interviews were focused on reviews of the literature that indicated detrimental impacts on the job, culture, and climate. Barbara Weaver and Sandra Hernandez Kang and Chung Alan Ross Daniel Chechik Gul and Wagner At the beginning, forty two small group leaders were approached to engage in the analysis.

Of the patients approached to participate in the study, only 15 agreed to participate. In spite of the inadequate data collection, repeated follow-ups were made. The webpage responses were acquired in one-sheet documents. A summary of the participants that participated in this study is presented in Table 1 end of the chapter. Results and Discussions The knowledge obtained from the interviews culminated in different patterns relevant to the flexible questions posed in the electronic mail discussions.

For the purposes of content review, works of Tremaine et. These compounding influences culminated in a multitude of fundamental themes Thyme et al. This kind of study is useful because it is systematic, which helps researchers to detect a recurrent trend Thyme et al. The responses were segregated for review and the similarities were found which made for easy categorization.

Coding helped in delivering a lot of material with heightened logic and sophistication Thyme et al. Certain responses provided similar output results for certain queries. Language multi skilling, implementing technology, planning and management of funds is frequently discussed in conversations with interview participants. The most popular trend cantered on the potential of workers.

This indicates that specialisation of workers would not be the norm and greater participation in multiple job positions is likely to become a norm in hospitality and tourism. Researchers have found that this can be accomplished by delegating additional duties, offering on-the-job instruction, and by department-wide work projects.

The magnitude of the problem can't be stressed enough and regardless of the size and type of establishment, next most important thing to consider will be sanitation practices and proper waste management evident in all types of hospitality operations. A variety of expectations remained strong, and confidence remained high. This was especially evident in the responses pertaining to the workforce growth. The experts in the field of tourism and hospitality may have developed a unique perspective of the industry through their rich experiences.

While COVID poses a situation unheard before, in that the reduced demand and revenues are obvious consequences, this issue will correlate with the previous crises that have had detrimental consequences. However, in previous health e. At this present time, the entire world has been kept hostage to this extreme pandemic, which has halted numerous activities. From the responses it is evident that like educators, business leaders too didn't shy away from highlighting the human resilience and seemed optimistic towards the eventual recovery while reassuring individuals who have or plan to pursue careers in the industry.

Participants expressed mixed opinions about the media response to the on-going pandemic, where some praised the Indian mass media's role in bringing knowledge about the COVID outbreak, while others expected it to be more unbiased. Recent press freedom ranking in put country's media at position, which can, to some degree, explain the variations in the way participants reflected on the media's function.

However, a unanimity was observed in acknowledgment of the media's ability in assuaging the impact though positive publicity, sensitising population about hygiene and sanitation and create trust among viewers. The crisis management response was replicated regardless of the form of inquiry.

Crisis management involves designing a crisis management strategy for responding to unwanted and unforeseen incidents. A specific risk can take the form of crisis due to a catalyst which can trigger unexpected outcomes.

Especially, crisis management needs you to devise plans rapidly in order to overcome or lessen the effects of a danger. There must be swift and timely communication among team members as well as between team members and members of other teams Reddy et al. In the current research industry experts felt it as a critical learning for themselves and the government to minimise harm in the event similar catastrophes make reappearance.

Voices of successful crisis management are gaining traction, so much so that a perspective paper has been released in the Journal of Tourism Futures in barely 3 months of the outbreak of COVID in China in In addition to the suggestions made by Jamal and Budke about care for local residents, clear communication among tourism and hospitality stakeholders, and need of UNWTO and WTTC to assist industry prepare for global health emergencies and support research, current research has made important contributions to the crisis planning and management from three major perspectives.

In the current results, respondents suggested that they will change their travel behaviour in the next 5 years and cited the tourism industry as a key obstacle. The consequences of COVID may be detrimental for the industry because they would likely be damaging. Wide job loss and a reduced economic contribution are inevitable, and demands for a bailout are growing.

Participants cited the need for the careful managing of contingency funds as a primary learning and accountability responsibility. Due to the seasonal variation, the sector is vulnerable to sporadic crises and economic uncertainty. However, the latest pandemic has only just begun to be realised. Participants also shown the severity at which a person's wellbeing impacts from proximity. The heavy emphasis on digital use and the use of online interaction was noted.

Educators stressed on the advantages of using technology for creating interactive relations with other individuals rather than physical encounters. Furthermore, the industry heads addressed how most businesses continue to lose business, and how the need to handle fixed costs continue to be a problem. Hotel and restaurant operators face higher fixed costs and are more vulnerable to the ups and downs of the market Dimitropoulos, The responses represented the problems that the organizations faced with.

Current problems encountered by many companies such as handling fixed costs, salaries, morale of workers, and cash flow. In the hospitality industry, the payment periods for services vary from 90 to 60 days, except for weddings.

The need for working capital for the fixed costs is a challenge. Unable to address fixed costs. These reflections are indicators of the recognition by industry actors of the on- going struggle and the need to remain afloat despite facing the uphill challenge of staying afloat. In addition, the industry is familiar with the variations in demand and so it can be argued that unlike other sectors that would ensure steady profits, some tourism and hospitality focused businesses are aware of the possible slack times arising out of various reasons including seasonal demand and crises.

Employees and employers alike need to improve their competencies in order to sail through these difficult times, also because it is necessary to be able to re-hire when the company recovers. Retaining employees is less costly than having to pay severance to retired employees. Any interesting remarks coming from business leaders should be noted.

Reducing the workforce is a choice, but smarter companies can look at reallocating workers to newer positions to suit the need of the company. It's important to remember that hospitality is all about people and experiences, that all comes down to relationships.

Present SARS cases may be more severe and last longer, due to the lack of immediate vaccinations to establish immunity in the masses. While some countries have attempted to follow the herd immunity model, but it has been challenged by a body of scientists without adequate evidence supporting such drastic action. Due to the demands in the tourism and hospitality industry, the outbreak must be contained to ensure perpetuity. The impact the earthquake would have on various industries such as tourism and hospitality are expected to last for quite some time.

This study illustrates how the outbreak can be treated as a wake up call to prepare for the after effects. Other factors such as change in travel and dining patterns, cautious investment, need of adaptability, market analysis, leadership positions, demographic concerns will be crucial in planning industry and stakeholders. Limitations This analysis has a range of flaws that should be considered. Some main themes and future research directions have been discussed.

The study is focused on the qualitative interpretation of the interviews with managers and senior staff. However, the findings do not adequately generalize the results. Main articles: List of beaches in Karachi and List of tourist attractions in Karachi. Khaliq Dina Hall. Empress Market. Merewether Clock Tower. Habib Bank Plaza. See also: Pakistani architecture and List of tallest buildings in Karachi. Main article: List of sports venues in Karachi. Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Pakistan.

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