Moe shandon torrent

Опубликовано 09.09.2020 в Nosso son ho claudinho e buchecha torrent

moe shandon torrent

dad, by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech. Republic (grant no. LO from the National Program of Sustain-. Shandon AS Cryotome was used to obtain μm-thick cryosections. by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant no. I often think of those Shandon bells, hose sound so wild would, Or a tree down a torrent swept swiftly COLLEEN DHAS CR U THIN A MOE. SCHINDLERS LIST 1080P TORRENT The number of. Incoming and outgoing connections are equally it. Keep in mind if they're logged the insistence on commands for monitoring.

Pathologists are absolutely critical in this area of testing and in therapeutic selection to enable precision medicine. Results: Targeted therapies based on the molecular genetic features of individual melanoma cases is beginning to drive targeted therapy selection and can greatly enrich the rate of response to particular treatments.

Conclusion: This lecture will focus on the genetic features of melanoma currently most relevant to treatment and how testing drives therapeutic selection. In the very near future, such testing will be employed for treatment in virtually all cases of metastatic melanoma.

Nephron number as determined during nephrogenesis may be one determinant of renal disease and hypertension in later life. Various genetic and epigenetic factors, but also maternal or environmental causes, are known to influence nephron number. An involvement of the kidney in the development of hypertension has been postulated for a long time and supported by experimental studies in rats and sheep.

Brenner and colleagues supposed a direct association between nephron number and blood pressure in humans. Their so-called Brenner hypothesis postulated that any reduction in nephron endowment leads to hyperfiltration of the remaining glomeruli, followed by glomerular enlargement with glomerular and then systemic hypertension, resulting in glomerulosclerosis, thereby establishing a vitious circle.

In line with this theory, an association of low nephron number and development of hypertension was shown in different animal models as well as in two autopsy studies in humans. Keller et al. In parallel, mean glomerular volume was more than twice as high in hypertensive patients as in normotensive control patients, indicating compensatory glomerular enlargement.

These results were confirmed in a Caucasian American population, whereas in African Americans, there was no association between glomerular number and blood pressure. The pathomechanisms linking low nephron number and hypertension are only partly understood. Among others, inappropriate activation of the renin—angiotensin system, impaired tubular salt handling leading to salt and volume retention, or post-glomerular structural changes have been discussed.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE is the prototype of human autoimmune multisystemic disease and has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, of which renal failure is the most common and severe. LN manifests as diverse patterns of immune complex-mediated renal disease involving all tissue compartments: glomerular, vascular and tubulointerstitial. Method: The histopathological manifestations of LN are classified into several categories, originally designated by the WHO in In , an international group of pathologist, nephrologists and rheumatologists formulated a new classification of LN in order to standardize definitions and improve diagnostic procedures.

Conclusion: The lecture will be devoted to the revision and reappraisal of a new classification of LN and the potential role and predictive ability of new markers. The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: a review based on the Polish renal biopsy registry. Wagrowska-Danilewicz, M. Danilewicz, A. Halon, E. Komuda, H. Karkoszka, A. Andrzejewska, K. Okon, I. Kurnatowska, M. Krasnicka, T.

Hryszko, M. IgA nephropathy is a disease of a diverse course and outcome. There were several attempts to create a morphological classification that would serve as a tool efficiently defining the potential responsiveness to the immunosuppressive treatment as well as prognosis in individual cases. The last of these proposals, The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy, was published in July The aim of our study was to compare the utility of few functioning classification systems, including Oxford and Hass classifications and Japanese histological grading, as well as our own morphological index of biopsies with IgA nephropathy.

On the basis of data collected in Polish Renal Biopsy Registry, we selected IgA nephropathy cases that were characterized by at least 2 years of post-biopsy follow-up, as well as satisfactory tissue material for light microscopy evaluation. Microscopical grading was performed by a group of experienced nephropathologists. The lecture will be devoted to the results and conclusions of this study.

The myofibroblast. From wound healing to neoplasia. With special emphasis on tissue fibrosis and fibrocontractive conditions. Twenty-five years of reflexions. The myofibroblast MF was discovered in in electron micrographs from experimental granulation tissue. This cell was shown to share features of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, hence its name. In due course, it was found to be the principal cell to effect wound contraction, i.

This unique cell was later defined at the histologic, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, biochemical and pharmacological levels. For the surgical pathologist, the MF is best defined by its ultrastructure.

Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate a heterogeneous pattern of cytokeletal phenotypes regarding actin isoforms and intermediate filaments. Five immunophenotypes were identified. Ultrastructural features that define the MF include: a stress fibers, i. MFs have been observed in normal tissues, in granulation tissue and in several pathologic settings which will be discussed in detail. Numerous cells can modulate into a MF phenotype: foremost, the local resident fibroblasts, followed by pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, liver perisinusoidal stellate cells, kidney mesangial and tubular epithelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells and mesothelial cells.

For the development of the MF phenotype, a two-stage model was proposed. Following tissue injury, complex changes in the microenvironment occur with the release of cytokines and the concerted action of a permanent feedback between intra- and extracellular tension, transforming progenitor cells into proto-MFs and then into differentiated MFs. Controversies in pulmonary epithelial proliferations: defining neoplasia from hyperplasia and metaplasia. Pathogenesis of SCC and ADC is a multistep and multicentric process involving the transformation of the normal bronchial mucosa and alveolar lining cells through a continuous spectrum of lesions.

Numerous genetic and molecular abnormalities occur in the very early stages of lung carcinogenesis, including hyperplasia and metaplasia and even in normal-appearing bronchial epithelium. It is not known which genetic changes are the most important or at what stage the process is irreversible. SM and hyperplasia can be either a repair or a reactive and reversible process of injured bronchial epithelium.

It is found in purely inflammatory settings. These reactive processes usually do not progress to dysplasia and carcinoma. That is, morphology is a gold standard in the diagnosis of both reactive and PPC, and no ancillary studies can be used as a diagnostic aid.

The strict histologic criteria are used to assist in the recognition and grading of mucosal lesions. The most challenging diagnostic problems in pleural biopsies include distinguishing between benign mesothelial hyperplasia and epithelioid malignant mesothelioma and between reactive pleural fibrosis and sarcomatoid or desmoplastic mesothelioma.

In addition, sometimes rare tumor types, such as lymphohistiocytoid malignant mesothelioma or epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, may mimic reactive processes. The first question to be considered when handling a problematic pleural biopsy is: Is the biopsy material adequate and representative as can be judged from clinical, imaging and thoracoscopic findings?

If in doubt, a new biopsy should be recommended. The distinction between benign and malignant mesothelial proliferation can be made on morphological grounds only, although immunostains, e. The most reliable criterion of malignancy is invasion.

Immunostains for broad-spectrum cytokeratins may aid in recognizing invasion both in epithelioid and spindle cell lesions. In spindle cell lesions, cytokeratins also help recognize the growth patterns of spindle cells. In reactive pleural fibrosis, a layer of cytokeratin-positive cells may be seen parallel to the pleural surface, whereas in sarcomatoid or desmoplastic mesothelioma, the pattern of spindle cells is haphazard or storiform.

Negativity of immunostaining for cytokeratins in a spindle cell lesion should not automatically lead to a conclusion of a benign process as, e. Correlation of histological and immunochemical findings with clinical and imaging findings is of utmost importance for a correct diagnosis without unnecessary delay. These rare tumours stem from mononuclear phagocytes or antigen-presenting dendritic cells. The latter belong to different cell lineages either haematopoietic or mesenchymal.

Histiocytic sarcoma HS affects adults and is characterised by an aggressive clinical course in most instances. Partial expression of S is recorded. Tumours derived from Langerhans cells LC. They include LC histiocytosis and LC sarcoma. The former represents a well-known entity, more commonly observed in children: Its behaviour varies according to the stage. The latter is a very aggressive disease of adulthood with overt cytological atypia and dismal prognosis.

The diagnosis is based on S and vimentin positivity in the absence of other lineage markers. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma FDCS occurs in adults and more often presents in the lymph node, at times within the context of Castleman disease.

Burkitt lymphoma BL is a well distinct clinicopathologic entity. In children of western countries, it mainly presents at extranodal sites such as the ileocecal region. In the new WHO classification of , it was felt that cases in which no solid diagnosis of BL or DLBCL can be made deserve more scientific attention and, therefore, should temporarily be put in a separate category.

Many patients fail to enter stable complete remission, even after high-intensity therapy as given for BL. Several cases will be discussed during the session. The latter occasionally shows large diffuse areas. Immunohistochemistry with a large panel of antibodies may be of help, but cannot solve all problems, and clinical aspects should always be taken into account as well.

In view of the important clinical therapeutic and prognostic consequences, such cases should also be evaluated by an expert hematopathologist. There may be various situations: a mediastinal mass with a synchronous composite CHL and PMBL with divergent morphology and immunophenotype. This situation may be more frequent than thought since usually, only a small sample from the mediastinal mass is taken. Both lymphomas may also develop metachronously.

The coincidence of both lymphoma types is explained by the fact that both lymphomas likely have a common thymic origin. Indeed, they share many genetic and molecular features as well. The latter corresponds to neoplasms with aggressive presentation, poor response to therapy and dismal prognosis.

Conversely to B cell lymphomas, PTCLs have so far been the object of a limited number of studies aiming to elucidate their pathobiology and identify novel pharmacologic approaches. Herewith, the authors revise the most recent contributions on the subject based on the experience they gained in the extensive application of microarray technologies. This observation seems to pave the way to the usage of innovative drugs, such as tyrosine kinase and histone deacetylase inhibitors whose efficacy has been proven in PTCL primary cell cultures.

WGS Pathologists in favour of developing countries—presentation of ongoing projects and results of the European Meeting in Turin in April Unity is strength: Telepathology as effective tool against the shortage of specialists. The South Saharan African countries are low-resource settings where the histological diagnosis of diseases and consequently the correct managing of the patient are difficult to obtain.

Telepathology allows doctors working in remote locations to obtain a definite diagnosis through the transmission of tissue specimen via remote telecommunication. Association Pathology Beyond Borders APOF in , in a small rural hospital in Zambia, to supply to the lack of pathology skilled personnel, started a project to train local staff to become technicians, able to prepare histological and cytological slides and to screen conventional Pap smears.

The two Zambian technicians signed out negative Pap smears, and in the presence of abnormal findings, they took pictures of significant diagnostic fields. Then the images were sent through Internet to experts in Italy who, on a rotating roster, were responsible of the final diagnosis. Since , the technicians were also able to prepare histological slides from the surgical specimen: Digital images of the slides were taken through a scanner and saved in a database in a local server.

Through a satellite connection and a made-to-measure archival software and web site, pathologists in Italy were able to examine the specimen, record their diagnosis and transmit it directly to Zambia. In low-income countries where no other possibilities are available, telepathology seems to be a reliable and secure diagnostic tool. Leave a mark: organizational models in building and managing a pathology service in developing countries.

The main aim of the NGO Association Pathologist Beyond Borders Associazione Patologi Oltre Frontiera, APOF is the improvement of activities related to anatomical pathology in developing countries to raise the health standard in those areas through the performing of histological and cytological diagnoses for therapeutic and preventive purposes, such as screening programs.

An essential part of every project managed by APOF consisted in the construction and organization of new pathology services or in the implementation of already existing laboratories. While taking into account every particular local environment, needs and available resources, APOF decided to export the same models that have proven effective in our context: The technical histological and cytological process, from the surgical sampling to the final report, was set in detail trough precise guidelines with the inclusion of procedures dedicated to process control.

Similar guidelines were used to update and adjust the diagnostic parameters according to international consensuses. The allocated funds were mainly used for the purchase of equipment and consumables and for the organization of updating courses dedicated to the technical and medical staff. In places where no skilled personnel were available, longer and more in-depth classes were organized for local staff, both in the place or in Italy.

The staff, once trained, passed also an examination to obtain an official and specific degree. The main purpose of this kind of management was to build a reliable system that could then be directly managed by local staff at the end of the project. The great debate about screening models in developing countries: matching needs and opportunities. The aim of this study was to discuss the reliability of Pap smear in screening programs for cervical carcinoma in low-resource settings.

Method: Two local staff members were trained by some APOF members to prepare histological and cytological slides and to screen conventional Pap tests. Subsequently, resident physicians were trained by two Italian gynecologists for colposcopy. Negative smears were directly reported by the two Zambian technicians.

Digital images of selected microscopic fields of suspect cases were sent over a special web site and reported by a group of experts. Finally, all slides were sent to Italy and blindly reviewed by a single expert. Positive cases were then directly managed at MMH by colposcopy, bioptic confirmation and treatment. Results: Pap smears results are summarized in Table 1. Conclusion: Pap smears can be an effective screening method even in low-resource settings focusing on local human resources.

Managing unusual diseases in unusual settings: Project Uganda and haemopathology. Although in the developed world the importance of the correct diagnosis is appreciated as a critical issue, this is still an evolving concept in some of the developing countries, especially in Africa.

In Africa, a majority of the laboratories still use the Working Formulation for Clinical Usage, a lymphoma classification from the early s which is based on morphology alone and does not include many entities recognized in the last 20 years. Without accurate diagnosis, any research project and effective patient management cannot be instituted.

Though there are no magic answers for an issue of this magnitude, on which other aspects are critically dependent, twinning between institutions in the developed countries and developing countries seems to be the most likely long-term approach. Examples of twinning approach to childhood cancer diagnosis and treatment have been Africa.

These programmes have led to improvements in the diagnostic accuracy through capacity building and joint research projects with both direct and indirect technology transfer. The role of APOF in low-resource settings: present and future projects for the development of surgical pathology in developing countries. In the last years, the cancer issue in most African countries is more and more dramatic. Many poor countries are unable to cope with the accelerating burden of cancer.

Furthermore, to establish any reliable oncologic treatment, it is mandatory to obtain a complete, documented histological diagnosis. Patologi Oltre Frontiera POF, Pathologists Without Borders , a newly established Italian NGO, has the mission to strengthen or build laboratories for anatomical pathology in developing countries, train local personnel, doctors and technicians for future autonomy of the laboratory, and provide medical and technical resources for histological and cytological diagnosis in the countries where departments of pathology are completely absent or based on a very small number of pathologists.

Since , Patologi Oltre Frontiera, which counts on tens of volunteers pathologists, biologists and technicians , have launched numerous projects in Tanzania, Cuba, Zambia, Kosovo, Palestine, Egypt, Uganda, Madagascar, Congo and Gibuti. Every project is tailored on the particular needs of the place, but each has to respond to some strict criteria of efficacy and sustainability, with the final goal to leave local, well-trained personnel and a modern well-equipped laboratory.

The essential purpose of the breast cancer pathology report is to communicate pathologic findings that aid in prognostication and guide the selection of appropriate local and systemic treatment for patients with breast cancer. To be clinically useful, the content of the report must change as new prognostic and predictive factors are validated and others become obsolete.

Histological subtype, carcinoma grade, the presence of lymphatic tumor emboli, the finding of Paget disease in a mastectomy specimen are also often reported, but do not inform specific treatments the way that stage, margin status and predictive markers do. In patients with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the pathologist selects a paraffin-embedded tumor sample for the Oncotype DX assay, which is used to predict the risk of recurrence in patients treated with tamoxifen and may addend the recurrence score to the surgical pathology report.

The breast cancer pathology report in is vital to appropriate breast cancer treatment, but can be expected to evolve. In order to assure the quality of pathology in all of Sweden, the Swedish Society of Pathology has instituted organ-specific quality assurance and standardization groups. These groups consist of dedicated pathologists from many subspecialty areas and are called KVAST groups. They meet regularly and their principal work is to formulate and maintain a document with guidelines which has a common framework for all the organ-specific groups.

Our group prepares the guidelines for breast pathology. The mandatory sections in all the guidelines include clinical background information, instructions to clinicians as how to handle the specimens, what information is needed on the requisition form, gross description, analyses, what information must be reported by the pathologist gross and microscopic , recommended classification system, administration and miscellaneous.

Sweden has a national cancer strategy programme emphasizing a patient perspective by focusing the patient process instead of piecing the treatment process together through independent specialities, as has been done previously. In , a group of breast cancer clinicians established a national quality register for breast cancer patients called INCA which also include a pathology section. The guidelines for breast pathology will require the breast pathologists to participate in the breast cancer patient process by focusing on the standardisation of requisition and pathology reports and quality assurance of biomarkers.

Background: All pathologists feel that the establishment of pathological diagnoses is somewhat subjective. Writing national guidelines is useful in order to achieve better consistency in reporting at the level of a geographic area, Hungary. Method: The text of the Hungarian guidelines on breast pathology reporting was written by a committee of pathologists with expertise in breast pathology. The basis of the new text was a consensus document from 10 years ago.

The URL allowing access to the texts was widely circulated on discipline-specific web sites. A Consensus Conference was organized for live discussion, and written comments were also welcome both from the writing committee members of the other texts and from the wider medical community the other texts were discussed similarly to allow better congruence.

All relevant comments were incorporated and the pre-final text was discussed at the Consensus Conference. The writing committee finalized the text on the basis of the relevant comments discussed at the conference. The pathology Guidelines were scheduled for publication with the other texts in the national oncology journal, Magyar Onkologia Hungarian Oncology. Olszewski, J. Objective: The pathologists from the three major oncology centers have worked out the guidelines for breast cancer pathology reporting.

Method: The proposed report was mainly based on the European and American guidelines as well as on the seventh version of TNM classification and was prepared in cooperation with radiologists and surgeons. Guidelines of the pathological reporting of breast cancer were accepted by the multidisciplinary board of the main national specialists representing different medical professions such as pathology, oncologic surgery, medical oncology, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and afterwards, they were described in the supplement of the Polish Journal of Pathology , vol 60, issue 3 The guidelines include the rules of interpretation of needle core biopsies and other diagnostic procedures, as well as the recommendations of gross description and processing of surgical specimens depending on the type of surgical treatment.

Especially, pathology report of breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was proposed. Special techniques used for diagnosis of breast lesions, their performance and interpretation are also included. Results: Finally, the histopathological evaluation form of breast cancer has been proposed. Conclusion: In a year after the supplement publication, it is planned to conduct a survey to find out the practical use of those guidelines.

On the basis of both the answers to those questions and medicine-based evidence, Polish guidelines are going to be compiled. Indolent lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with different clinical and pathological features that share some common features. The tumor cells are small B and grow predominantly in the topographic sites where the corresponding normal counterpart is localized.

The proliferation rate is relatively low, and the cells tend to expand towards the adjacent tissues with limited destructive capacity. Clinically, these tumours have a long indolent course and the patients may not need chemotherapy for long periods of time. However, the tumours may not be cured with the current therapies and slowly progress, increasing the tumor burden and relapsing successively during the evolution of the disease after an initial response to the therapy.

In some cases, transformation to a more aggressive diffuse large cell lymphoma may occur, and then the evolution is rapid with poor response to savage therapies. FLs in extranodal sites such as skin and duodenum have distinctive clinical and biological characteristics that differ from the nodal counterparts.

MALT lymphomas develop on a previous chronic inflammatory background that in most occasions is related to certain infections or autoimmune disorders. The morphology, phenotype, molecular alterations and genetic features of the tumours are distinctive, allowing a precise characterization. Translational aspects of thymic epithelial cancers: could anti-angiogenesis be an option?

Background: For the management of soft tissue sarcomas, it is essential to make a correct pathological diagnosis and grade. However, these tumours are rare, with an incidence of about 25 per million population, and a general pathologist might encounter only one or two per year. Furthermore, diagnostic criteria evolve, particularly concerning ancillary investigations such as immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics.

Method: We reviewed the pathology of all patients with soft tissue tumours diagnosed elsewhere and referred for management to a specialist sarcoma unit in a 1-year period. This did not include cases sent for second opinion directly from other pathologists. The most common discrepancies occurred in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumours and leiomyosarcoma and in the subtyping of other spindle cell sarcomas as well in grading.

Conclusion: The findings support the guidelines by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom that diagnostic review of soft tissue tumours should be performed by specialist soft tissue pathologists, i. The role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the examination of soft tissue tumours.

Background: Open biopsy usually provides sufficient tissue for the diagnostic workup of soft tissue tumours. Some disadvantages to open biopsy are risks of complications, high costs and occasionally delay in therapy initiation. An increasing use of minimally invasive diagnostic procedures has resulted in better acceptance of fine needle aspiration cytology FNAC in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours.

The Center has been responsible for the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal tumors in the South Sweden Health Care Region comprising 1. Results: The combined evaluation of clinical and radiological data and FNAC has been sufficient for making a treatment decision in most patients with sarcomas.

For patients who were referred with a clinical suspicion of malignancy but in whom it was later proved to be a benign soft tissue lesion, only one visit to the Center was necessary for a therapeutic decision to be made. Conclusion: Compared to open biopsy, FNAC is an outpatient procedure, well tolerated by patients, and with negligible risks for serious complications. Correct diagnosis of soft tissue tumours is facilitated when cytological diagnosis is based on strict cytological criteria and ancillary techniques and when FNAC is used in the context of the clinical findings.

On-site, immediate evaluation of smears stained by DiffQuick is an optimal way to ensure that an adequate sample for both routine examination and for ancillary studies has been taken. Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors BNST composed of cells with distinctly schwannian characteristics. The four major schwannoma subtypes are conventional, cellular, plexiform and melanotic schwannoma. Rarely, schwannomas occur in visceral locations. Classic schwannomas are encapsulated and are composed of two morphologically distinct components known as Antoni A and Antoni B tissue in various proportions.

Verocay bodies as well as the common occurrence of thick-walled hyalinized vessels are helpful diagnostic features. Characteristically, the tumor cells express S protein and the perineurial capsule can be highlighted with EMA. It is worthy to note that there is a tendency to misdiagnose schwannomas and to overestimate their grade. Diagnostic challenges are cellular schwannomas, which may mimic a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor MPNST , melanotic schwannomas, which are often mistaken as melanomas and the plexiform schwannoma, particularly in the cellular form and when occurring in the childhood simulates MPNST.

Molecular understanding of Ewing sarcomas and potential targets for treatment. Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors, including more than a hundred different entities. Sarcomas are quite resistant to conventional chemotherapy anthracyclines and ifosfamide , with the exception of some subtypes such as Ewing sarcoma ES.

New drugs with proved efficacy against sarcomas include taxanes, gemcitabine, and ET Preclinical studies have also identified key molecular events leading to the progression and development of ES which are good candidates to targeted therapy. This particular neoplasm, characterized by chromosomal translocations that originate gene fusions EWS-FLI1, EWS-ERG , is an example of a good chemotherapy responder tumor whose survival rate shows a plateau in recent years, especially in metastatic disease.

On the other hand, recent studies showed the role of cancer stem cells CSCs in sarcomas and the relevance of the identification of reliable molecular markers and possible therapeutic targets. New therapeutic approaches could be directed against CSCs. This talk describes more recent targeted therapy in sarcomas, with special emphasis on ES and the role of CSCs.

Molecular understanding of EWS translocations: implications for tumours other than Ewing sarcoma. Indications for and clinical consequences of renal biopsies in kidney transplants. The transplant nephrologist decides to biopsy a given patient on the basis of clinical symptoms and laboratory data. The renal pathologist then makes a histological diagnosis which allows an evidence-based approach to specific therapy, which again will be decided on by the clinician.

Renal transplant diagnoses generally fall into one of five categories: preexisting donor-related diseases, rejection, drug toxicity, infection, recurrent or de novo renal diseases. Although many diagnoses are typically encountered during a certain phase after transplantation, clinical information alone will often not suffice to differentiate between diagnoses, which require a totally opposite treatment regimen. The timing of the biopsy is most important to achieve a successful treatment and to avoid irreversible damage to the transplant.

The rule of thumb at our center is to biopsy early in delayed graft function if there is a change in serum creatinine of more than 0. Sufficient biopsy material, adequate workup including C4d and SV40 immunohistochemistry, and an experienced pathologist are the other prerequisites. Pathology in zero-hour biopsies and clinical consequences: Hungarian and Polish experience.

At the University of Szeged, Hungary, we carried an original clinicopathological study to assess what type of vascular changes—if any—are associated with late graft dysfunction. We examined in 94 zero-hour biopsies the frequency and severity of nonspecific morphological lesions semiquantitatively.

Among the arterial changes studied, only the intimal fibroelastosis IFE of moderate degree frequency, According to Hungarian experience, donor kidneys with a moderate degree of IFE do indeed have a higher risk of late graft dysfunction. This suggests that donor-derived arteriolar hyalinisation predisposes to more severe acute rejection-associated graft damage. Background: It has become evident that antibody-mediated immunity plays a critical role in acute and chronic allograft rejection.

According to the Banff scheme, serological alloantibody detection represents one of the major diagnostic criteria for antibody-mediated rejection AMR. The design of sophisticated diagnostic tests for prediction and monitoring of AMR has become a major goal in transplant medicine.

In this context, Luminex-based bead array technology represents an attractive strategy for a detailed analysis of anti-HLA reactivity patterns. Nevertheless, the actual diagnostic significance of such assays is still ill-defined and currently under intense discussion. For supersensitive bead array technology, there is a need for well-defined and standardized test thresholds. In addition, the predictive value of distinct qualitative parameters, such as DSA binding strength or antibody-triggered in vitro C4d deposition, is still to be established.

In the context of allograft dysfunction post-transplant, solid phase detection of alloantibodies, with or without C4d-fixing ability, may represent a valuable diagnostic adjunct. However, the predictive value of circulating DSA in stable recipients is still under discussion. Conclusion: The implementation of innovative serological tests can be expected to substantially improve the diagnostic repertoire in transplant medicine. Future studies are needed to clarify the actual value of such tests for allocation, targeted recipient desensitization or diagnosis of ongoing or pending rejection.

Objective: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy PVAN is a significant clinical problem that has emerged in the last decade of renal transplantation. The virus resides in latent form in the urinary tract in the majority of healthy individuals and is known to reactivate in immunocompromised patients. While seen in recipients of other solid organ transplants, it affects almost exclusively renal transplant receivers.

The gold standard for the diagnosis of PVAN remains allograft biopsy that can illustrate characteristic viral cytopathic effect in the nuclei of the tubular epithelial cells and the degree of associated inflammatory cell response. The infection with BKV should be confirmed by either immunohistochemical stain for SV40 or by in situ hybridization. Immunosuppression is the main modifiable risk factor. To ensure optimum protection, screening of all patients is essential.

Monitoring, early diagnosis, and therapy need standardization. Salivary and mammary glands share an identical ductulo-acinar architecture, and thus, it is not surprising that lesions and tumours arising in both organs share considerable histologic similarities. Salivary-type tumours are well known in breast; in contrast, breast-like lesions are rarely described in salivary glands.

One of the commonest breast conditions, benign fibrocystic disease, was not thought to have a salivary counterpart, but recently, sclerosing polycystic adenosis SPA was described as a distinctive neoplastic lesion of the major salivary glands. Although SPA has many histologic similarities to its mammary counterpart, it represents a true neoplastic condition characterized by clonality, focal dysplasia, and a tendency to recur. Up till now, secretory carcinoma SC has been considered to occur only in the breast.

Recently, we published a series of 16 salivary gland tumors with histomorphological and immunohistochemical features reminiscent of SC of the breast. This is an unusual, hitherto undescribed, distinctive salivary gland tumor, with some morphological features of both salivary acinic cell carcinoma AciCC and mammary SC, characterized immunohistochemically by strong vimentin and S protein positivity.

Microscopically, the tumours exhibit a lobulated growth pattern, and they are composed of microcystic and glandular spaces with abundant eosinophilic homogenous or bubbly secretory material, which is positive for PAS, mucicarmine, MUC1, MUC4, and mammaglobin. For this tumour, we propose, therefore, a designation mammary analogue secretory carcinoma MASC of salivary glands. No translocation was found in any conventional salivary AciCC or other salivary gland tumours with undetermined secretory features.

Thus, our results support the concept that MASC and salivary AciCC are distinct entities and should be recorded separately in salivary gland tumour classifications. We believe that our study has added another example to the list of similar tumours in both organs, with MASC as the salivary gland counterpart of mammary SC. Despite the shared morphologic and immunohistochemical properties, SC of the breast and MASC of salivary glands differ in their clinical behavior.

Breast SCs have a rather indolent clinical course, with a propensity to local recurrence and prolonged survival. In contrast, salivary MASCs constitute a spectrum of clinical behaviour from indolent tumours to those with a rapid clinical course characterized by metastases and cancer-related death. Supported by: Grant no. Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and smaller ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane.

They can be recognised with various immunohistochemical markers, although none is specific or reliable in every case. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumours can take several forms, including epithelioid, spindle, plasmacytoid, clear and oncocytic, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis. Benign salivary adenomas form a spectrum with differing proportions of luminal, basal and myoepithelial cells and stroma.

Whilst clinically similar, benign myoepithelioma differs from basal cell adenoma and pleomorphic adenoma only by being composed almost exclusively of myoepithelial cells, but the very different morphology justifies the separation of the entity in diagnostic practice. Benign myoepithelioma exhibits a considerable range of microscopic features, both of architecture and cytology, but nevertheless, there are several typical appearances, all reflecting the different forms that non-neoplastic myoepithelial cells can take.

Solid, myxoid and reticular growth patterns may be seen, and the component cells may be epithelioid, spindle-shaped, plasmacytoid hyaline , clear, or oncocytic. Many tumours show more than one growth pattern or cell type, but myoepitheliomas of the minor glands tend to be composed of plasmacytoid cells and those of the parotid, epithelioid or spindle cells.

The clear cell variant is relatively rare. A minor degree of nuclear pleomorphism is allowable, but mitotic figures are generally scanty. The stroma is variable in amount and is usually hyaline, fibrous or myxoid, but occasionally, it may occasionally contain chondroid material or mature fat cells. Circumscription is sometimes incomplete, particularly in tumours of the minor salivary glands, but unlike their malignant counterpart, benign myoepitheliomas do not show destructive invasion.

Myoepithelial carcinoma malignant myoepithelioma is a rare but probably under-recognised malignancy that may arise de novo or in a preexisting benign myoepithelioma or pleomorphic adenoma. There is an equal sex incidence and a wide age distribution. Most cases arise in the parotid, but any gland may be affected. It typically has a multinodular architecture. The range of cell types reflects that seen in benign myoepitheliomas and includes pure or mixed populations of epithelioid cells the most frequent often arranged in trabeculae or pseudo-acinar structures with cleft-like spaces, cells with clear cytoplasm sometimes appearing signet ring-like , vacuolated sometimes lipoblast like , hyaline plasmacytoid and spindle to stellate.

The nuclei of malignant myoepitheliomas may be relatively uniform small- to intermediate-sized and composed of finely distributed chromatin, lacking obvious nucleoli, or there can be marked cytological atypia, with large nucleoli. Mitotic figures may be scanty to plentiful and include atypical forms. The tumour-related matrix is generally a prominent component and is hyalinized or myxoid.

Metaplastic changes are frequent and include squamous areas, often with keratinisation. Other histological features include areas of necrosis seen in both high- and low-grade tumours, as well as perineural and vascular invasion. A tumour containing more than an occasional true luminal cell should not be diagnosed as a myoepithelial carcinoma. Almost all myoepithelial carcinomas express S protein, vimentin and broad-spectrum cytokeratin antisera, either generally or in areas. Myoepithelial carcinomas are locally aggressive, and about a third of patients develop metastases and die of disease.

Myoepithelial cells are also found in greater or lesser numbers in a few other carcinomas and are an integral part especially in epithelial—myoepithelial carcinoma. MEC is characterized by the presence, in variable proportions, of three cell types: epidermoid, mucin-producing and intermediate cells that can undergo clear and oncocytic change. Tumour histology remains the major criterion to establish the prognosis of affected patients, namely grade of differentiation.

MEC has a karyotypic profile, with recurrent rearrangements of chromosomal bands 11q21 and 19p13, that usually presents as a balanced t 11;19 translocation, frequently as the sole cytogenetic alteration. This chromosomal rearrangement creates a chimerical gene product that fuses the protein coding regions of CRTC1 exon1 in-frame with exons of the MAML2 gene. It has also been found in MEC at the skin, the breast and at the uterine cervix. Extraordinary technical advances were required to facilitate this, but few could have predicted the attendant conceptual revolutions.

Since the publication in of the first draft of the human genome and the parallel reports of the sequences of many other genomes , our view of the complexity of the organisation and regulation of genomes has increased. The EnCode project Genome Res ;— further highlighted the extraordinary diversity of transcription and demonstrated that the protein coding regions are but a fraction of the transcriptome.

The importance of non-coding regions in genome regulation has become manifest, and the diversity of splicing events was previously unsuspected. The timescale of generating data similarly collapses to a mere fraction of that required even 2 years ago.

The information load will be immense and new approaches will be needed to deal with the impact of this on clinical decision making. The consequences for these developments are perhaps unfathomable at present, but we are challenged to find ways to take advantage of these developments lest pathology be bypassed by other disciplines. Background: The era of molecular diagnostics of lymphoid malignancies started with the cloning of the immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes.

Southern blot analysis was applied in clinical laboratories to establish clonality of lymphoid proliferation. This was followed by the cloning of a number of translocation breakpoints in the more common lymphomas. Method: The advent of polymerase chain reaction provided an alternative to Southern blot analysis as it is simpler and faster.

In addition, the amount of clinical material required is much smaller, and it can be performed on archival paraffin-embedded materials. Results: Gene expression GE analyses by use of microarrays MAs have become an important part of biomedical and clinical research. The resulting data may provide important information regarding pathogenesis and may be extrapolated for the diagnosis and prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL This genomic technology has revealed that existing diagnostic categories of NHL comprised multiple molecular and clinically distinct diseases.

In addition, gene expression profiling studies may lead to the identification of novel targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for NHL. Conclusion: More recently, the discovery of a novel class of small non-coding RNAs, the microRNAs, has opened a new scenario in understanding the regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs control gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, and deregulation of their physiological function has been revealed to be crucial in cancer.

Background: Since non-small cell lung carcinoma NSCLC is being predominantly diagnosed at advanced stage, the option of a curative therapy no longer exists in most instances. Both inhibit the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR1. This is the reason why the EMEA has approved Iressa treatment only after such analysis, which has to be performed pre-therapeutically. Conclusion: These analyses should be performed only in laboratories certified by a quality control organization, e. If an activating mutation was detected, the anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Iressa was recommended as a possible treatment.

An update of the ESP k-ras quality assurance program. Objective: Immunohistochemistry IHC became a prominent means of diagnostic investigation in the early s. IHC became fairly routine in surgical pathology and rapidly supplanted electron microscopy as a way of classifying tumors.

Method: Since the s, the major focus for the use of IHC has been as a diagnostic tool, chiefly for the classification of tumors as carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, germ cell tumor, mesothelioma, or sarcoma. The explosion of molecular diagnostics, along with clinician demands, has channeled our focus on the current state of IHC in pathology.

Results: Molecular tests and gene expression profiles that purport to predict patient outcomes and drive therapeutic decisions are currently favored by oncologists. However, IHC is the only laboratory venue that supplies molecular morphology that may be directly visualized and interpreted. In addition to diagnostic IHC, theranostic and genomic applications are also now in the menu of the pathologist. Conclusion: Pathologists must be able to emphasize the molecular morphology of IHC and how it can supply theranostic and genomic information in addition to diagnostic applications.

Our IHC challenges include standardization of the total test and the ability to quantitate results for patient care. Most common laboratory pitfalls in IHC immunohistochemistry IHC is a well-established technique and used daily in virtually all departments of surgical pathology as a diagnostic, predictive and prognostic tool.

However, IHC is an assay influenced by multiple parameters and the final result is highly dependent on the choice and performance of these variables. In the protocol setup for IHC, both the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical parameters will affect IHC staining, and it is of utmost importance to be familiar with these technical aspects in order to use IHC as a diagnostic tool. In the pre-analytical phase, fixation still is the key element for a reliable result, and it is essential that fixation is standardized with respect to the choice of fixative, time to and time in fixative in order to get consistent results and to avoid false negative or false positive reactions.

The implementation of new tissue processing techniques based on, e. Regarding the analytical phase, the three key elements are: 1 appropriate epitope retrieval, 2 a sensitive and specific primary antibody, and 3 a robust detection system. To validate the performance and consistency of IHC, it is necessary to use internal and external controls. Especially the use of multi-tissue blocks containing tissues with different levels of the antigen is superior to single control blocks.

Background: The real frequency of interpretation pitfalls in immunohistochemistry is difficult to assess and may vary greatly between laboratories and pathologists. The risk of misinterpretation increases with the greater use of immunostaining as an integral part of theranostic workup, the increasing number and varying quality of available antibodies, as well as the rapidly expanding body of information regarding the complexity of IHC profiles of tumours.

Growing clinical expectations for pathological evaluation are an additional challenge. Method: The presentation will address the most important elements regarding the correct interpretation of immunostaining using AAASPIN as a simple algorithm for safer approach. Results: A—Adequate antibody panel: Selection of antibodies is often a consequence of considered differentials, but results of immunostaining may also influence the choice of antibodies in subsequent analyses.

A—Antibody clone: The spectrum of reactivity and cross-reactivity should be known. P—Pattern: The appropriate staining pattern has to be present. I—Intensity of staining may depend on the amount of antigen and not only technical issues. The results of immunostaining round cutoff values in oligobiopsies should be carefully interpreted since the distribution of antigen in tumour tissue may vary.

The interpretation of immunostaining must always include the proper context of both morphological and clinical data. Background: Optimization of immunohistochemical IHC staining reactions to a common standard is vital for reliable and comparable results in diagnostic pathology. Yet, staining quality varies greatly between laboratories compromising diagnostic reliability.

In an external quality assessment EQA system, staining results from many laboratories can be compared, allowing the identification of less successful antibodies Abs and insufficient protocols. Method: The Nordic Immunohistochemical Quality Control NordiQC scheme, established , comprises a general module with three annual runs catering 15—18 IHC markers and a breast cancer module with two annual runs catering hormone receptors and HER Tests for 80 markers have been carried out up to nine times.

General results are published on www. Individual results are e-mailed to the laboratories, which in the case of insufficient marks are given tailored advice to improve their performance. Conclusion: There is still room for improvement in laboratory proficiency. Accuracy of cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a cyto-histologic correlation.

In addition, kynurenine converted from tryptophan by IDO also has an immunosuppressive role [ , ]. IDO inhibitors are clinically developing for a variety of cancers, although some trials were stopped due to lack of efficacy [ ]. Because of its central role in tumor immunity, HLA molecules could be biomarkers in future immunotherapy. In a previous study of malignant melanoma, down-regulation of the HLA I molecule was suggested as a potential mechanism of resistance to PD-1 blockade therapy [ ].

For sophisticated patient selection, confirmation of HLA I molecule downregulation could become essential. A recent study by Chowell et al. The authors suggested that greater diversity within the HLA I molecule would result in a larger repertoire of neoantigens for presentation. Through HLA genotype data of cancer patients, homozygosity in at least one HLA class I locus was significantly associated with poor prognosis for immunotherapy.

Hence, patient HLA genotype might be utilized as a biomarker for immunotherapy discovery. Due to important contributions of past research and clinical trials, immunotherapy is now regarded as an important option for treating patients with advanced GC. The mechanism of the tumor immune reaction is complicated; however, understanding of immune responses to cancer cell is crucial for advanced patient selection.

As demonstrated by previous clinical trials, immunotherapy will greatly improve survival of patients with GC in the future. Thus, research in immuno-oncology should continue, including studies investigating novel biomarkers and clinical trials. All remaining authors have declared no conflicts of interest. Go to this page to see a list of supporting browsers. Prev Page 0 of 0.

Article information J Pathol Transl Med. Publication date electronic : November 1. Abstract Remarkable developments in immuno-oncology have changed the landscape of gastric cancer GC treatment. Keywords: Stomach neoplasms ; Immunotherapy ; Programmed cell death-ligand 1 ; Microsatellite instability ; Epstein-Barr virus ; Tumor mutational burden ; Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ; Biomarker.

Mechanism of immune evasion in solid tumors The immune surveillance system attempts to eliminate tumor cells in the early stages of cancer. Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in gastric cancer In recent years, TILs have been studied for their role as prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets.

Table 1. Table 2. Epstein-Barr virus EBV-positive GCs constitute a unique subgroup of GCs in the TCGA with several distinct clinicopathologic characteristics, including abundant TILs, male predominance, relatively young age, earlier stage, and favorable prognosis [ 65 , 72 , 73 , 76 ].

Tumor mutational burden Tumor mutational burden TMB , a new predictive biomarker for response to immunotherapy, is a quantitative measure of the total number of somatic nonsynonymous mutations per megabase of genome examined in the DNA of cancer cells [ 92 ]. Funding acquisition: HSL. Supervision: HSL.

Conflicts of Interest H. References 1. The promise of Immunooncology: implications for defining the value of cancer treatment. J Immunother Cancer ; Chen DS, Mellman I. Oncology meets immunology: the cancer-immunity cycle. Immunity ;— Ann Oncol ;— Therapeutic cancer vaccines. J Clin Invest ;— Innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Nat Immunol ;— Vaccines for established cancer: overcoming the challenges posed by immune evasion. Nat Rev Cancer ;— Clin Cancer Res ;— Tumour antigens recognized by T lymphocytes: at the core of cancer immunotherapy. Dranoff G. Cytokines in cancer pathogenesis and cancer therapy. Immune recognition of self in immunity against cancer.

Schwartz RH. T cell anergy. Annu Rev Immunol ;— Pardoll DM. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Elements of cancer immunity and the cancer-immune set point. Nature ;— Tanaka A, Sakaguchi S. Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy. Cell Res ;— Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer. The three Es of cancer immunoediting. Colocalization of inflammatory response with B7-h1 expression in human melanocytic lesions supports an adaptive resistance mechanism of immune escape.

Sci Transl Med ;ra Buchbinder EI, Desai A. Am J Clin Oncol ;— Coinhibitory pathways in the B7-CD28 ligand-receptor family. Eur J Immunol ;— Liver sinusoidal endothelial cell lectin inhibits CTL-dependent virus clearance in mouse models of viral hepatitis. J Immunol ;— Parham P, Ohta T.

Population biology of antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules. Science ;— Garrido F, Algarra I. MHC antigens and tumor escape from immune surveillance. Adv Cancer Res ;— Immune escape of cancer cells with beta2-microglobulin loss over the course of metastatic melanoma. Int J Cancer ;— Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease 9th edth ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and prognosis in gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Oncotarget ;— Prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Prognostic implications of type and density of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer ;— Stromal regulatory T-cells are associated with a favourable prognosis in gastric cancer of the cardia. BMC Gastroenterol ; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ;— J Surg Oncol ;— Hum Pathol ;— Impact of chemokine receptor CXCR3 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte recruitment associated with favorable prognosis in advanced gastric cancer.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol ;— Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. Medicine Baltimore ;94e Oncoimmunology ;5e Prognostic implications of immunosuppressive protein expression in tumors as well as immune cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment in gastric cancer.

Gastric Cancer ;— Mismatch repair deficiency may affect clinical outcome through immune response activation in metastatic gastric cancer patients receiving first-line chemotherapy. Clinicopathological features of programmed death ligand 1 expression with tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte, mismatch repair, and Epstein-Barr virus status in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients. Infiltrating and peripheral immune cell analysis in advanced gastric cancer according to the Lauren classification and its prognostic significance.

Gastric Cancer ;Jul. Differences in immune contextures among different molecular subtypes of gastric cancer and their prognostic impact. Global cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin ;— Medical management of gastric cancer: a update. Cancer Med ;— Update on targeted therapy and immune therapy for gastric cancer, J Cancer Metastasis Treat ; Lancet ;— FDA approval summary: pembrolizumab for recurrent locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma expressing PD-L1.

Oncologist ;—9. FDA approval summary: pembrolizumab for the treatment of microsatellite instability-high solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res ;—8. Lancet Oncol ;— Safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with previously treated advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer: phase 2 clinical KEYNOTE Trial. JAMA Oncol ;4e Pembrolizumab versus paclitaxel for previously treated, advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer KEYNOTE : a randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 3 trial.

CheckMate study: efficacy and safety of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with metastatic esophagogastric cancer. J Clin Oncol ;— Ann Oncol ;—8. Checkmate a randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of nivolumab Nivo plus ipilimumab Ipi versus oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidine in patients Pts with previously untreated advanced or metastatic gastric G or gastroesophageal junction GEJ cancer. Safety and efficacy of durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab, durvalumab monotherapy, and tremelimumab monotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

J Clin Oncol ; Phase III, randomised trial of avelumab versus physician's choice of chemotherapy as third-line treatment of patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer: primary analysis of JAVELIN Gastric Future Oncol ;— Bethesda: ClincalTrials. An investigational immuno-therapy study to assess the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of anti-LAG-3 with and without antiPD-1 in the treatment of solid tumors [Internet]. Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death.

EMBO J ;— Ribas A. Tumor immunotherapy directed at PD N Engl J Med ;—9. Drug Des Devel Ther ;—9. Immunohistochemical localization of programmed death-1 ligand-1 PD-L1 in gastric carcinoma and its clinical significance. Acta Histochem ;— Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma.

Nature ;—9. Interpretation manual: gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. J Clin Pathol ;— Molecular analysis of gastric cancer identifies subtypes associated with distinct clinical outcomes. Nat Med ;— Microsatellite instability in gastric cancer: molecular bases, clinical perspectives, and new treatment approaches. Cell Mol Life Sci ;— Meta-analysis of microsatellite instability in relation to clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival in gastric cancer.

Br J Surg ;— Microsatellite instability status in gastric cancer: a reappraisal of its clinical significance and relationship with mucin phenotypes. Korean J Pathol ;— A protein and mRNA expression-based classification of gastric cancer. Mod Pathol ;— High-throughput protein and mRNA expression-based classification of gastric cancers can identify clinically distinct subtypes, concordant with recent molecular classifications. Am J Surg Pathol ;— Four distinct immune microenvironment subtypes in gastric adenocarcinoma with special reference to microsatellite instability.

ESMO Open ;3:e Comprehensive molecular characterization of clinical responses to PD-1 inhibition in metastatic gastric cancer. Lee J, Kim KM. Biomarkers for gastric cancer: molecular classification revisited. Precis Future Med ;— Molecular testing for gastrointestinal cancer. J Pathol Transl Med ;— Comparison of the microsatellite instability analysis system and the Bethesda panel for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancers.

J Mol Diagn ;— Eur J Hum Genet ;— Usefulness of immunohistochemistry for microsatellite instability screening in gastric cancer. Gut Liver ;— Ann Oncol ;—4. Microsatellite instability status determined by next-generation sequencing and compared with PD-L1 and tumor mutational burden in 11, patients. Epstein-barr viruspositive gastric carcinoma has a distinct protein expression profile in comparison with epstein-barr virus-negative carcinoma. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer.

Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma and specific features of the accompanying immune response. J Gastric Cancer ;—7. Outlooks on Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric cancer. Cancer Treat Rev ;— Epigenetic dysregulation in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: disease and treatments. World J Gastroenterol ;— Epstein-Barr-encoded RNA in situ hybridization: diagnostic applications.

Hum Pathol ;—5. Gulley ML. Molecular diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus-related diseases. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric cancer: a systematic review. Medicine Baltimore ;e Methods of measurement for tumor mutational burden in tumor tissue.

Transl Lung Cancer Res ;—7. Whole-exome sequencing and clinical interpretation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples to guide precision cancer medicine. Nat Med ;—8. Cancer immunology. Mutational landscape determines sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in non-small cell lung cancer.

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