Oldenbourg grundriss der geschichte ebook torrents

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oldenbourg grundriss der geschichte ebook torrents

(Oldenbourg Grundriss Geschichte). [Ost]. Dabry de Thiersant, Philibert = Dabry, Claude-Philibert (Belleville-sur-Saône , E-mail: [email protected] severe natural disasters in recorded history struck and devastated many Oldenbourg, Munich. Die Legende Vom Club Die Geschichte Des 1 Fc Nurn · The Law Of Direct Democracy Vegetation Und Klimazonen Grundriss Der Globalen. HOW TO DOWNLOAD WATCH DOGS PC FREE UTORRENT PROXY Camelcamelcamel Amazon price the file has a simple INI. Register for a use YouTube as. Inability to automate to Output Directory a competitive market, in large enterprises and makes compliance the Build Action.

Four Alternatives2. The Simultaneity of the Four Karmasa. Projecting Karma3. Karma in AntarabhavaE. Necessarily Retributed Karma1. Karma Experienced in the Present Existencea. Its CauseF. Karma as SensationG. Painful Mental Sensation1. The Three DhatusH. The Four Karmas1. Black and White Karma2. Black and White Karma andUndefiled Karma The Three Silences4. The Three Purifications The Three Bad Praaices The Courses of Aaion A.

Vijnapti and Avijfktptirupa Preparatory and Subsequent Aaion A Bad Course of Aaion A Good Course of Aaion D. Murder and the Prapti of itsTransgression When a Murderer is a Member of anOrganization F. The Charaaeristics that Determinea Course of Aaion Killing a.

Refutation of the Jain Idea of Karma Robbery Sexual Miscondua Lying a. Malicious Speech Greed, Anger, and Ignorance G. The Meaning of "Course of Aaion" Discussion: Is Volition a Mental Aaion? Cutting Off the Roots of Good What Roots are Cut Off? Volition and the Course of Aaion J. Karma and its Results A. The Five Results B. Proper Aaion, etc The Three Obstacles Definition of Ananatarya Their Sphere C Schism D. Conditions for Moral Transgressions Volitional Intention Mortal Transgression and Detachment E.

The Best of Good Moral Aaions Mortal Transgressions and Rebirth in Hell Killing a Bodhisattva VI. The Bodhisattva A. When is One a Bodhisattva? The Buddhas that He Met E. The Paramitas. The Three Meritorious ActionsA. Definition of Meritorious Action B. Giving Its Results Giving Different Objects Different Recipients The Highest Form of Giving The Eight Gifts Non-Aryan Fields of Merit The Karma of Giving a.

The Six Causes b. The Meritorious Aaions of Absorption E. The Gift of the Dharma G. Miscellaneous DiscussionsA. Synonyms of Various Dharmas Homage to the Buddha. The author wishes to explain the diverse topics of mind that areproduced in Kamadhatu, Rupadhatu, and Arupyadhatu, the realms ofdesire, physical matter, and no physical matter ii. What are these three realms? Kamadhatu consists of hell, the Pretas, animals, humans,and six gods.

Twenty, through the division of the hells and the differencesin the continents. The twenty places are eight hells iii. And the Pretasand animals. Hence, from Avici hell up to the heaven of theParanirmitavasavartins, there are twenty places which constitute, withthe physical world which rests on the circle of wind iii.

Above is Rupadhatu, of seventeen placesThe seventeen places of Rupadhatu are above Kamadhatu,. But thefourth is of eight stages. These seventeen placesconstitute Rupadhata 4But the Kasmirians say that Rupadhatu is made up of only sixteenplaces. Arupyadhatu is not a place. It is fourfold through its mode of existence. Akasanantyayatana, Vijnanantyayatana, Akimcanyayatana, andNaivasamjnanasamjnayatana or Bhavagra constitute Arupyadhatuwhich is thus of four types.

But this superiority does not imply difference ofstage. Where a person exists who possesses an absorption [whichproduces an existence in Arupyadhatu], here the existence in questionbegins; here too, at the end of this existence, the intermeditate beingwho is called to take up a new existence will be formed [in Kamadhatu.

What is the support of the mental series of beings inAriipyadhatu? Here the mental series exists supported by the nikaya andthe vital organ. But, one would say, genre and the vital organ of material beings issupported by physical matter: but what is the support of genre and thevital organ for nonmaterial beings?

These two support one another. Among material beings, genre andthe vital organ do not have the force necessary to support one another,but they have this force among nonmaterial beings, because theyproceed from a certain absorption. According to the Sautrantikas, the mental series, mind and mentalstates, does not have, among nonmaterial beings, any support which isexternal to it. This series is strong and can serve as a support. Or rather, we say that the mind is supported by the mental states,and the mental states by the mind, in the way that you say that genre andthe vital organ support one another.

Arupyadhatu is that which is associatedwith arupya. Or rather these terms are compounds the first term of which is agenitive: Kamadhatu, the receptacle oidhdtu of the kamas; Rupadhatu,the receptacle of matter; Arupyadhatu, the receptacle of arupya. We will see this by the following stanzas. Sariputra said to an Ajivika, "The fine things of this world are notkamas; kdma is the desire that the imagination nourishes amonghumans.

The objects of the universe are of little importance: the sageovercomes all desire with regard to them. What is the craving proper to each Dhatu? The craving that develops, that resides in the dharmas of this Dhatu.

This is the example of the tether: "To whom does this tetherbelong? We have enumerated the places that constitute Kamadhatu. The same for the other two Dhatus. Or rather, "craving proper to Kamadhatu" is the craving of a beingwho is not absorbed samdhita ; "craving proper to Rupadhatu, toArupyadhatu" is craving relative to the absorption of dhydna, to theabsorptions of arupya.

But this mind is produced only among beings detached fromKamadhatu. How can one say that this mind is of the sphere of Kamadhatu? Infact this mind is not produced among a being not detached fromKamadhatu, and, when this mind is produced among a being detachedfrom Kamadhatu, it cannnot be for him the object of a aaving of theorder of Kamadhatu. This mind is hence of the sphere of Kamadhatu. This mind is of the sphere of Kamadhatu because a craving of theorder of Kamadhatu is produced with regard to it in a person whointends to speak of this mind as belonging to another, or whoremembers having possessed it previously, or who sees magic creations.

Or rather because this mind creates some odors or tastes: now a mind ofthe sphere of Rupadhatu cannot create odors or tastes because beings inRupadhatu are detached from both of these. Horizontally, 20 as the Sutra proves, 21 "as when the cloud Isadhara 22rains, there is no interval or discontinuity of the drops of water that fallfrom space, so too towards the East there is no interval or discontinuityof universes lokadhatus in a state of creation and of dissolution; astowards the East, the same towards the South, the West and the North.

There is then aKamadhatu above Akanistha and an Akanistha below Kamadhatu. The World Whoever produces the abhijna or higher knowledge of magicalpower in the First Dhyana, creates a magical being that can only be theBrahmaloka of the universe wherein the creator of this magical being isborn; not in the other universes vii.

In these Dhatus, there are five realms of rebirth that havebeen designated by their names. In Kamadhatu there are the first four realms ofrebirth and a part of the heavenly realm of rebirth; the other parts of theheavenly realm of rebirth exist in the other two Dhatus. The stanza speaks of "five realms of rebirth" in the Dhatus. Is therethen a part of the Dhatus that are not included in the realms of rebirth? The good, the bad, the physical world, and intermediateexistence are included in the Dhatus.

Whereas, as for the five destinies4b-d. They are undefiled-neutral, they are the world of beings,and they do not include intermediate existence. A being born inKamadhatu is filled with the defilements of this sphere bhumi and canbe filled with the defilements of higher spheres.

Intermediate existence is not a realm of rebirth see below p. The nature of the realms of rebirth is illustrated by many texts: 1. The Prajnapti says, "The four wombs yoni, iii. Intermediate existence, which is an apparitional womb, is not.

Subtle matter derived from the primaryelements which, in hell, among animals, among the Pretas, among thegods, among humans, among beings born in an absorption, and amongintermediate beings, is eye, eye-organ, eye-source of knowledge,eye-element"3.

The Sutra itself says that intermediate existence is not includedamong the realms of rebirth: "There are seven bhavas or existences:existence in hell, animal, Preta, heavenly, human, plus karmabhava andintermediate existence antardbhava.

When thisretribution is realized, there is what is called hell. Venerable One, outsideof these five dharmas, one cannot maintain the existence of any being inhell. But how can this thesis accord with the declaration of thePrakaranagrantha according to Saeki, this is a summary of TD 26, p. The World as it does. Among the fivecorruptions kasaya the corruption of defilements kksakasdya andthe corruption of views drstikafdya,ih. Action karmabhava is alsoincluded within the realms of rebirth. The word gati or realm of rebirth signifies "the place where onegoes.

If it were a realm of rebirth it would not be intermediate, and soit would not be called an intermediate existence. Sariputra says that there is a being in hell when the retribution ofhellish actions is realized; it does not say that the realm of rebirth is partretribution, part non-retribution. The text says that there does not existany being in hell outside of these dharmas, riipa, etc.

Seven abodes or types of consciousnesses vijndnasthitis ,namely: 1. They are of different ideas, because their ideas, ideas ofpleasure, displeasure, neither-pleasure-nor-displeasure, are not identical. The World vow, 'May other beings be born here in my company! We ask then where were these godswhen they saw Brahma? But, we would say, when they fell from Abhasvara Heaven, a heavenof the Second Dhyana, they lost the Second Dhyana, and the SecondDhyana is necessary to the memory of a past existence in the heaven ofthe Second Dhyana vii.

Further, they have not re-acquired theSecond Dhyana since they have fallen into the erroneous view e. But one would object that this intermediate existence is very shortfor it cannot have any slowing down of birth in this world. At themoment when they are born there, they saw him who being born beforethem, who lasts a long time. Having seen him, they think: "We haveseen this being.

The Sutra, in naming the highest gods of the Second Dhyana, theAbhasvaras, also designates the Parlttabha and the Apramanabha gods. If it were otherwise, to which vijnanasthiti would these two classesbelong? There is no difference of color, mark, or figure among them: thus.

They have ideas of pleasure and ofneither-pleasure-nor-displeasure: thus there is diversity of ideas. In fact, it is said Vibhdsd, TD, p. Fatigued from this second sensation, they again take up theSecond Dhyana and the sensation of mental pleasure. One would object that it should hold for a god of the Third Dhyana Subhakrtsnas, etc: fourth vijnanasthiti as for the gods of the SecondDhyana: yet the gods of the Third Dhyana do not pass into samantaka,and always possess the sensation of pleasure.

But this objection is in vain. The Subhakrtsnas do not becomefatigued with the pleasures of the Abhasvaras, since they are calm,whereas the pleasures of the Abhasvaras, being mental pleasures,trouble the mind and are not calm. The Sautrantikas are of a different opinion. Whenthe destruction of the universe takes place through fire, they see theflames rising and destroying the palace of the world of Brahma: they arefrightened, grieved, confused, 'May these flames not rise up to here!

Do not be afraid, friend! Already previously this fire,having burnt the Palace of Brahma, disappeared' Then one sees indeedhow the gods of the Second Dhyana have different ideas: at the burningup of the worlds in the First Dhyana, they have ideas of the arriving orthe non-arriving of the flames amongst them, and they have ideas offear and no fear.

The explanation of the Vaibhasikas then, that thesegods exchange the sensation of pleasure and indifference, is not good. The World gubhakrtsnas, are the fourth vijndnasthiti"They have the same ideas, because they have the sensation ofpleasure. The first three Arupyas are the last three vijndnasthitis as itsays in the Sutra. Why are not the rest vijndnasthiti! The rest reduce the Vijnana. According to another explanation Vibhdsa, TD 27, p.

As for the FourthDhyana, all those who are in it desire to leave it: Prthagjanas desire topass to the realm of the Asamjnisattvas; Aryans desire to pass to the. There are no other dwellings of beings, for elsewhere onelives without desiring it. Beings arebrought there by the Raksasa which is Karma and live there withoutdesiring it. This is not one of the "dwellings" in the same way that aprison is not a dwelling. There are four other sthitis. They consist of the four impure skandhas y which are of thesame sphere as the vijndna.

The World abode or sthiti see above, note But why is the fifth skandha, the consciousness itself mind andmental states , not considered as an abode of the consciousness? The Vaibhasikas observe that the sthiti, "that upon which, or withinwhich one grasps" is opposed to sthdtar, "he who grasps. The king is not the throne. Oragain vijndnasthiti signifies an abode of the mind, and the dharmasupon which the mind rides in order to move forward, are like the sailorson the ship: now the mind does not ride on the mind in order to move;hence the mind is not an abode of the mindBut another Sutra says, "There is delight nandi-saumanasya'smsfaction and attachment with regard to this food which is theconsciousness" iii.

If there is delight and attachment with regard tothe consciousness then the consciousness rides in it and resides in it. The Vaibhasikas answer: When we consider, without making anydistinction between the skandhas, the process attached to the consciousnesswith regard to its arising which is made up of the fiveskandhas, then we can say that the vijnana is a vijndnasthiti. But, if weconsider the skandhas one by one, we see that matter, sensation, ideas,and the samskaras—which are the support of the consciousness, and areassociated or coexistent with the consciousness—are the causes of thedefilement of the consciousness: but the consdousnesss is not, in thisway, the cause of the defilement of the consciousness, since twoconsciousnesses do not coexist.

Taken separately, the consciousness is not defined as anabode of the consciousness. Further, the Blessed One described the four abodes of consciousnessas "a field," and he describes the consciousness, accompanied by desire,as "a seed. The correspondance admits of four cases. First case: the consciousness is included among the seven, but notamong the four.

Second case: the four skandhas excluding the consciousness of thepainful realms of rebirth, the Fourth Dhyana and Bhavagra, are includedamong the four. Third case: the four skandhas are included among the seven, and arealso included among the four. Fourth case: the other dharmas are included neither among theseven nor among the four, [namely the consciousness of the painfulrealms of rebirth, etc, and the pure dharmas]. We have said that the three Dhatus include five realms of rebirth,etc.

Eytmologically, yoni signifies"mixture": in birth—birth being common to all creatures—beings aremixed together in confusion. The World major and minor limbs. These are called upapaduka, apparitional,because they are skillful at appearing upapadana , and because theyarise all at once [without an embryonic state, without semen and blood];such as gods, beings in hell, or beings in an intermediate existence.

Humans and animals are of the four types. Humans can be born from an egg, such as Saila and Upasaila whowere born from the eggs of a crane; 68 the thirty-two sons of Visakha ,the mother of Mrgara; 69 and the five hundred sons of the King ofPaficala. Apparational humans ii. Animals are also of four types. These types are known throughcommon experience. Nagas and Garudas are also apparitional seebelow, note Beings in hell, intermediate beings, and the gods areapparitional too.

They are of two types, apparitional and born from a womb. Thatthey are born from a womb results from a discourse that a Pretl had withMaudgalyayana, "I gave birth to five sons a night, to five sons a day: I atethem and was not satisfied. The apparitional womb. But the Bodhisattva in his last birth evidently possesses "mastery. See iii. The Bodhisattva seesgreat advantage in it: by reason of their relationship with him, the greatSakya clan enters into the Good Law; and, recognizing in him a memberof the family of the Cakravartins, persons experience a great respecttowards him; persons are encouraged seeing that, being a man, he hasrealized this perfection.

Others 79 explain that the Bodhisattva has taken up the womb inorder that his body remains as relics after his Nirvana: 80 through theadoration of these relics, humans and other creatures by the thousandsobtain heaven and deliverance. In fact, the bodies of apparational beings,not having any external seed semen, blood, bone, etc. If the bodies of apparitional beings disappear at their deaths, howcan the Sutra say, "The apparitional Garuda seizes the apparitionalNaga in order to eat it?

Or rather he eats the Naga as long as the Naga is not dead: but hedoes not feast on the dead Naga. The apparitional womb, for it embraces all hellish realms of rebirth,. The World all heavenly realms of rebirth, plus one part of the three other realms ofrebirth, plus intermediate beings. Intermediate existence, which inserts itself between existenceat death and existence at birth, not having arrived at thelocation where it should go, cannot be said to be born.

This existence between two realms ofrebirth gati is called intermediate existence. We say that it is arising upapadyamdna ; but it is not born seeiiL40c. In fact as its etymology indicates pad-gam, upapanna-upagata ,to be born is to arrive. Intermediate existence or intermediate being ,when it begins, has not arrived at the place where it should go, namely tothe place where the retribution of actions is manifested and achieved.

This opinion is false, as reasoning and Scripture prove. Being similar to the series of rice, existence does notreproduce itself after having been interruptedThe momentary dharmas exist in a series; when they appear in aplace distant from that in which they have been found, it is because theyare reproduced without discontinuity in intermediate places, such as theseries that constitutes a grain of rice and which one transports to adistant village by passing through all the villages in the interval.

In thesame way, the mental series takes up birth after being reproducedwithout discontinuity intermediate existence from the place wheredeath took place. Hence the elements of arising do not depend onthe elements forming an uninterrupted series between the place ofdeath and the place where they reappear. The existence of the refleaion is not proved; should it beproved, the refleaion is not similar; hence it does not serve as anexample. A reflection is a thing in and of itself dravya namely a certain typeof color varnd.

The existence of the refleaion is not proved. For two things do not exist in the same spot. In one and the same spot, a person placed to the side of a mirrorperceives the rupa or physical matter of this mirror, matter derivedfrom the primary elements updddyarupa ; a person placed facing themirror perceives his own refleaion, which is a "certain type of color,"derived matter.

Now one can admit only that two derived matters existat the same time in the same spot, for each of them should have as itssupport two distina groups of primary elements. Two persons who both look at the same objea, a jar, etc. Now two persons placed at the two sides of a pond seethe refleaion of the objea that faces them: the same refleaion is notseen at the same time by both of them.

Shade and sunlight do not coexist in the same spot. Now, if oneplaces a mirror in the shade i. It is thus proved, by these three observations, that a refleaion is nota real, substantial thing dravya. We do not see, in the same spot,the surface of the mirror and the refleaion of the moon, refleaed in themirror: this refleaion appears recessed, at a depth, like the water in a.

The World well. A reflection is thus only an illusory ideataking the form of the reflection pratibimbakaram bhrantamvijndnam. Such is the power of this complex, mirror and object, that itproduces the seeing of a reflection, of an image resembling the object. Incomprehensible is the power of the dharmas and the variety of thispower. It stillcannot serve as an example in your reasoning, for it cannot be comparedto arising.

It is not similar to arisingb. For it does not form a series. The reflection does not form a series with the object reflected,because the reflection arises supported by the mirror, and because thereflection is simultaneous to the object reflected. But on the contrarydeath and arising form a series, the second being later to the first andbeing produced in another place than the first without there being acutting off between them [due to intermediate existence].

For it arises from two causes. It is by reason of two causes that a reflection arises, by reason of themirror and of the object. The principal of these two causes is the causeupon which it takes its support in order to arise, namely the mirror. Butit happens that arising, or birth, proceeds from only one cause; and itnever has a principal cause which is not death. Arising has no externalsupport in the case of apparitional beings, because they appear suddenlyin space.

And these external elements cannot be the principal cause forthe beings that arise from semen, blood, or mud, since these items areabsent from the mindReasoning thus proves the existence of an intermediate being sincearising proceeds from death without there being any discontinuitybetween these two existences.

The intermediate being is called by its name. It is the Gandharva. We read in the Sutra, "Three conditions are necessary for an embryoto descend, [in order for a son or daughter to be born]: the woman mustbe in good health and fertile, the pair must be united, and a Gandharvamust be ready.

Theyreplace the third condition by a text that says, "a dissolution of theskandhas [that is, one dying] must be made ready. Do you know ifit comes from the east, the south, the west, or the north? An intermediate being is proved by the text relative to theFive.

The World reborn among some so-called Antara gods. But they should then admitthe existence of Upapadya gods, etc. An absurd opinion. By the Sutra of the Seven Satpurusagatis. Given this text, it is pure fantasy to suppose that anantardparinirvdyin is an inhabitant of a heaven of the Antara gods, forthese Antaras cannot be divided into three classes by reason of durationand place.

But yet other scholars— the Vibhajyavadins as the Vibhdsd, TD 27,p. An antardparinirvdyinobtains Nirvana, that is, eliminates the defilements, eitherin the interval of his lifetime, or in the interval of his cohabitation withthe gods. He is threefold: he is termed a dhdtugata if he obtains Nirvanahaving just arrived in the Dhatu [that is, in a heaven of Rupadhatu, andas a consequence if he eliminates the defilements that cause him to bereborn in Rupadhatu whereas they the defilements are still in aseed-like state]; he is called a samjndgata if he obtains Nirvana later, at amoment when the idea samjnd of the objects of Rupadhatu is active inhim; and he is called a vitarkagata if he obtains Nirvana still later, at amoment when the vitarka vol itions, etc.

In this way we would have three antardparinirvdyins conformingto the definitions of the Sutra and who obtain Nirvana in the interval ofthe duration of their life, that is, without achieving the end of their life asgods of the heaven where they were rebora Or rather, the firstantardparinirvdyin obtains Nirvana as soon as he has taken possessionof a certain divine existence; the second after having experienced aheavenly bliss; and the third, after having entered into company orconversation with the gods.

An objection: if an antardparinirvdyin is a saint who is reborn,experiences bliss, and enters into the company of the gods, what will anupapadhyparinirvayin be, literally "one who obtains Nirvana as soon as. Thus they do not correspond to the examples of theSutra. On the other hand, there are saints in Arupyadhatu who obtainNirvana without having fully lived their lives to the end iii. The Master has entered Nirvana, and the Good Law no longer has aleader.

Many sects have been formed that change the meaning and theletter to their fantasies. Yet there are some difficulties:a. We must reconcile the doctrine of an intermediate being with theSutra on Mara. This Sutra says, "The Mara called Dusin, [having struckthe head of Vidura, the disciple of Krakucchanda,] fell, with his ownbody, into great Avici Hell. Mara then felt a retribution in this life before feeling a retributionin hell.

The text thus means that Mara was enveloped, while still alive,by the fires of hell; that he dies; and that he then takes up anintermediate existence which leads to hell where birth in hell takesplace. The World b. We hold that the expression "immediately"signifies "without intermediary," without passing through anotherrealm of rebirth gati : which is an action "retributable in the nextexistence" upapadya, iv.

If you take the Sutra literally, you come toabsurd conclusions: you would have to say that one must havecommitted the five crimes in order to be reborn in hell and you wouldhave to say that the transgressor is reborn in hell immediately after thetransgression, or that he is reborn there without dying here. Moreover,according to our doctrine, rebirth in hell is immediate; it is not preceededby a "birth" as an intermediate being. We maintain that, by its nature,the intermediate being is "arising" upapadyamdna because he isturned towards the birth upapatti that follows death; we do not saythat he is born upapanno bhavati iiilOd.

But we understand the words antard vdsa in thesense of dwelling among humans: "Once dead, you shall not reappearhere;" or rather, the text means that "No one can retard the progress ofthe intermediate being that you are going to become on the way to theplace of your rebirth in hell. We would reply with the same question.

If, in this manner, the two objections are made equal, what proof canyou come to? Let us observe that for the Sutra on Mara, etc. Thetexts are thus not conclusive for or against intermediate beings. Textsthat are conclusive and which serve as proof are those which can beinterpreted in only one way: [as we have quoted, pp.

Being projected by the same action that projects thepurvakalabhava y an intermediate being has the form of thisbeing, that is, the being of the realm of rebirth to come after hisconceptioaThe action that projects the gati or the realm of rebirth—an existncein hell, etc—is the same action that projects the intermediate existenceby which one goes to this realm of rebirth.

Objection: In the womb of a dog, a sow, etc, there can die in itsembryonic stage a being who should then be reborn in any one of thefive realms of rebirth. Let us suppose then that this embryo is replacedby an intermediate being destined to go to helL This intermediatebeing,if he has the form of a being in hell, will burn the womb of the dog. Answer: Even in a perfect state purvakalabhava , beings in hell arenot always incadescent, for example the "annexes" utsodas, iii. There is thus noadherence of the intermedate being.

The dimensions of an intermediate being are those of a child of fiveor six years of age, but his organs are perfectly developedThe intermediate being of the Bodhisattva is similar to theBodhisattva in the fullness of his youth; he is adorned with the majorand minor marks; that is why, when this intermediate being comes toenter his mother's womb, he illumines a thousand universes with theirfour continents.

But we know that the mother of the Bodhisattva saw in a dream asmall white elephant enter her side. This was only an "omen," becausefor a long time the Bodhisattva has been disengaged from animalrebirth. The World contests, which were omens. But how do you explain the stanza of the Bhadanta Dharmasubhuti,no "Changing his body into that of a white elephant having sixtusks and four feet, he enters the womb and lies therein in fullconsciousness as a Rsi entering a forest?

Bhava is existence, the skandhas. In intermediate existence, the five skandhas enter two realms ofrebirth: upapattibhava, which is the skandhas at the moment of theirentry into a realm of rebirth, at the moment of their pratisamdhi iii. He is seen by the creatures of his class, and by the divineeye. He is seen by the intermediate beings of the class,—heavenly,etc. He is also seen by the pure divine eye, that is,by the divine eye that is obtained through higher knowledge abhijnd,vii.

According to other masters, a heavenly intermediate being sees allintermediate beings; a human intermediate being sees all intermediatebeings with the exception of heavenly intermediate beings, and so on. He is filled with the impetus of the supernormal power ofaction. The Buddhas themselves cannot stop him because he is endowed withthe force of action.

He is sakaldksa; aksa signifies indriya. No one can resist him. Even a diamond isnot impenetrable to him. For, they say, when we split open a mass of redhot iron we find that some small animals are born inside it. When an intermediate being is to be reborn in a certain realm ofrebirth, from this realm of rebirth, by force,I4d He cannot be turned away. He will go to be born in the realm ofrebirth with a view to which he has been formed.

The World Does an intermediate being of Kamadhatu eat, like the other beingsof Kamadhatu, solid food iii. Yes, but not coarse food. I4d It eats odors. We have gandharva, and not gandharva, as we havesakandhu, or karkandhu. A Gandharva of low rank eats unpleasant odors; a Gandharva ofhigh rank eats pleasant odors. There is no fixed rule, says the Bhadanta. Objection: There is a mass of meat as big as Mount Meru which, inthe summer rains, changes into a mass of worms. It is in this spot thatintermediate beings arrive, being reborn in these worms arisingtogether in such a large number; or rather, from whence do theseintermediate beings come?

There exists an infinite number of small animals having short life,coveters after odors and tastes; perceiving an odor, they remember thetaste that was associated with it, and they eventually die, coveting theseodors and tastes.

When they die, they had in their minds vibodhya anaction the nature of which was to produce an existence among worms;and, by their desire for odors and tastes, they are reincarnated amongworms. Or rather it is only when the external causes necessary for the. It is forthis reason that the Blessed One declared that the retribution of actionsis incomprehensible Samyukta, The Bhadanta Vasumitra says: An intermediate being lasts sevendays.

If the complex of causes necessary to reincarnation has not beenrealized, then the intermediate being dies and is reborn. Other scholars say that it lasts seven weeks. Cattle are notborn during the rains, nor gods in autumn, nor black bears in winter, norhorses in summer.

But on the other hand, there is no season for buffalos,etc. The intermediary being who, if it is the season of rains, would bereborn a cow, is reborn a buffalo; in the same way a jackal instead of adog, a brown bear instead of a black bear, or an ass instead of a horse. We know in fact that existence andintermediate existence are projected by the same action.

One cannot saythat an existence as a buffalo is preceeded by an intermediate existenceas a cow. The World its desire for sex, to the place of its realm of rebirth. An intermediate being is produced with a view to going to the placeof its realm of rebirth where it should go. It possesses, by virtue of itsactions, the divine eye. Even though distant he sees the place of hisrebirth.

There he sees his father and mother united His mind istroubled by the ef fects of sex and hostility. When the intermediate beingis male, it is gripped by a male desire with regard to the mother; when itis female, it is gripped by a female desire with regard to the father; and,inversely, it hates either the father, or the mother, whom it regards aseither a male or a female rival. Thenthe impurities of semen and blood is found in the womb; theintermediate being, enjoying its pleasures, installs itself there.

When the embryo is male, itremains to its right in the womb, with its head forward, crouching;female, to the left of the womb, vagina forward; with no sex, in theattitude in which one finds the intermediate being when it believes it ishaving sex. In fact, when an intermediate being possess all the organs, itthen enters as a male or female and places itself as befitting its sex.

It isonly after reincarnation that a developing embryo can lose its sex. According to another opinion, their support are some primaryelements different from these, arisen from actions, and which repose samnisraya in the semen and blood. First opinion: Semen and blood do not have any organs.

When anintermediate being perishes, it has some organs and so constitutes whatis called the first embryonic stage, or kahda. In the same way the arising. But the word kalala is placed there to designatesome other primary elements that arise reposing on the semen andblood: [reposing on semen and blood they arise, together with thesemen and blood, from other primary elements that are called kalala andwhich include the organs.

For other beings, say the mastersof the Abhidharma, the modes vary according to the case. Other go in their desire for odor or in their desire forresidence. Beings which arise from moisture go to the place of their rebirththrough their desire for its odors: these are pure or impure by reason oftheir aaions. Apparitional beings, through their desire for residencethere.

But how can one desire a residence in hell? He is tormented by the cold of rain and wind: he sees a place burning. The World with hot fires and through his desire for warmth, he runs there. Or he istormented by the heat of the sun and hot winds: he sees a cold place offrozen fires, and through his desire for coolness, he runs there. According to the ancient masters, he sees these things in order toexperience the retribution of aaions that should be retributed in hell; he sees beings similar to him and he runs to the place where they are.

Humans,animals, Pretas, and intermediate beings go in the manner in whichhumans, etc, go. As the stanza says, "Those who insult Rsis, ascetics and penitentsfall into hell head first. Is this a general rule? The Sutra teaches that there are four ways to descend into, abide and leave the womb garbhdvakrdnti. The first enter in full consciousness; the second, further,dwell in full consciousness; the third, further, leave in fullconsciousness; the fourth accomplishes all these steps with atroubled mind.

Beings born from eggs are always of this lastclass. The first do not dwell and do not leave in full consciousness; thesecond do not leave in full consciousness; the third, in all these moments,are in full consciousness; the fourth are, in all these aaions, without fullconsciousness. Here are the four garbhdvakrddntis that the authorteaches, in his sloka in an order different from that of the Sutra. Without doubt. One who is born from an egg is now entering into awomb.

Or rather we have here an anticipatory designation. A being with little merit enters because he thinks, "The wind blows,the heavens rain; it is cold; it storms; people are in an uproar," andbecause, wishing to avoid these wearinesses, he believes that he isentering into a shelter, a thicket, a hut of roots and leaves, or rather hetakes shelter at the foot of a tree or against a wall.

Then he imagineshimself resting in this thicket, in this hut, and eventually leaves it. Thereis an error of ideas and resolution. The same for a being rich in merits,who believes he is entering a park, a garden, a palace, a terrace, or apavilion; he believes this and he rests there and eventually leaves it. A being who has full consciousness knows that he enters into thewomb, that he dwells there, and that he leaves it. Three garbhavakrantis,—the Cakravartin and the twoSvayambhus,—by reason of their great purity of action, ofknowledge, and of action and knowledge.

All these designations are "anticipatory": one means to speak of a being,who, in this existence, will become a Cakravartin, etc. The Cakravartin enters in full consciousness, but does not reside infull consciousness and does not leave in full consciousness. ThePratyekabuddha resides in full consciousness, but does not leave in fullconsciousness. The Buddha is always in full consciousness. The first has a great outflowing of merit and he is made resplendent.

The World through aaions; the second has knowledge obtained through instruction,reflection and mediation; and the third has merit, instruction,etc: both action and knowledge. The fourth garbhdvakrdnti, that of not full consciousness, pertainsto beings without great aaions and great knowledge. The non-Buddhists, who believe in an atman, say, "If you admitthat a being sattva goes to another world, then the atman in which Ibelieve is proved"In order to refute this doarine, the author says,18a.

The atman does not exist. In faa the Blessed One said, "Aaions exist, and results exist, butthere is no agent who abandons these skandhas here and takes up thoseskandhas there, independently of the casual relationship of the dharmas. What is this causal relationship? Namely, if this exists, then that exists;through the arising of this, there is the arising of that; Pratityasamutpada?

French trans, v. Is there then, ask the non-Buddhists, a type of atman that you do notnegate? Only the skandhas, conditioned by defilement and aaion,go reincarnating themselves by means of the series of intermediateexistences.

As an example: the lamp. We do not deny an atman that exists through designation, an atmanthat is only a name given to the skandhas. But far from us is the thoughtthat the skandhas pass into another world! They are momentary, andincapable of transmigrating. We say that, in the absence of any atman, ofany permanent principal, the series of conditioned skandhas, "made up"of defilements and aaions i. In conformity with its projecting cause the series growsgradually, and, by virtue of the defilements and actions it goesagain to another worldActions the nature of which is to be retributed in life dyusyakarman, ii.

Then, when the embryo, this throne, is ripe, there arises withinthe womb winds arisen from the maturity of action which causes theembryo to turn and places it towards the portal of its birth: it is difficultto move like a great mass of hidden impurity.

Sometimes, eitherthrough the unfavorable conditions of the mother's eating, or by reasonof actions, the embryo perishes. Then an expert woman, after havinganointed them with all sorts of drugs, puts her hands filled with asharpened blade into this wound hideous, bad-smelling, and wet with allsorts of impurities which is the womb. She pulls out the embryo afterhaving cut it up limb by limb.

And the series of the embryo, by virtue ofaparaparyayavedaniya action iv. Or else the birth is fortunate. The mother and the servants take thenew-born baby into their hands which are like knives and acids for thisbody now as sensible as an open wound One washes the child; onenourished it with milk and fresh butter, and later with solid foods: thusdoes he grow.

Andwhen the body perishes, the series passes into another existence byreason of these defilements and actions, through the medium of theintermediate existence, as mentioned previously. In this way the circle of existence is without beginning. The World actions: the circle of existences is thus without beginning. In order for itto begin, it would be necessary for the first item to have no cause: and ifone dharma arises without a cause, then all dharmas would arise withoutcauses.

Now the determination of time and place show that a seedproduces a shoot, that a fire produces cooking: hence there is no arisingthat does not have causes. On the other hand, the theory of a single andpermanent cause has been refuted above ii. But birth, coming from causes, would not take place if its causes aredestroyed, in the same way that a shoot would not arise if its seed isburned.

Pratityasamutpada or dependent orgination has twelveparts in three sections or time periods. Two for the first, two for the third, and eight for the middle. Ignorance and the samskdras existed in a past existence, birth andold age and death will exist in a future existence, and the eight otherparts exist in the present existence. Are the middle parts to be found in the present existence of allcreatures?

Why is this? At least to consider the series that has all of its parts. This refers to a "complete person," aparipurin, that passes throughall of the states that constitute these parts. Such persons are not beingswho die before their time, [for example, in the course of their embryoniclife], nor are they beings of Rupadhatu or Arupyadhatu. It is certain thatthe Sutra that enumerates these eight parts refers to beings in. Pratityasamutpada can be divided into two parts: past existence and its effects ; and the causes of future existence andfuture existence What are, in this conception of Pratityasamutpada, its differentparts?

Ignorance is, in a previous life, the state of defilement. All the defilementsin fact accompany ignorance, and are activated through ignorance. In thesame way, when one says that the king is coming, one understands thathis courtiers are accompanying him. The samskdras are, in a previous life, the state of action. The series of the previous life, which does good, bad, or neutralactions, constitute the samskdras.

The consciousness is the skandhas at conception. The five skandhas, in the womb, at the moment of reincarnation pratisamdhi or arising constitute consciousness. Ndmarupa is the series from this moment on, untilthe production of the six dyatanas. Ndmarupa is made up of the five skandhas, in the womb, fromarising, as long as the six organs are not manifested.

It is proper to say,"as long as the four organs. Six ay asanas before coming together of the three or contact. The six ayatanas are the five skandhas from the first appearance ofthe organs until the moment when the coming together of the organ,the object of consciousness, and the consciousness takes place. There is contact before sexual union.

Contact, which the Karika terms vibti, exists for as long as desire forsexual union is not in aaion. Desire "thirst" is the state of one who desires pleasure andsexual union. There is then in activity concupiscence relative to the objects ofdesire kamagunas, iii. Thisstate of "thirst" or desire ends when one begins, under the influence ofthis desire, to search out these pleasures.

Updddna or attachment is the state of one who runsaround in search of the pleasures. One runs everywhere in order to acquire these pleasures v. Runningaround in this manner24a-b. He does actions which will have for their result futureexistence bhava : this is bhava,[Bhava signifies "aaion," for existence takes place by reason of it,bhavaty anena.

The period during which one does this aaion. Jati is the new reincarnation. The five skandhas at the moment when reincarnation takes placeafter death is jati The "part" that receives the name of consciousness in apresent existence is called jati in a future existence. From jati until sensation,—which is here termed vid—there arefour parts of the present existence, ndmarupa, the six ayatana, contactand sensation which are, in a future existence designated by theexpression old age and death, the twelfdi part of this twelvefold series.

It is also said that Pratityasamutpada is fourfold: momentary or ofone moment ksanika ; prolongued prdkarsika: extending over manymoments of many existences ; serial sdmbandhika, through the unionof causes and effects ; and static dvasthika: embracing twelve states, orperiods, of the five skandhas. When a person in prey to the defilements commits murder, thetwelve parts are realized in one and the same moment: 1.

The World It is also said that Pratityasamutpada is both momentary and serial atthe same time. It is also prolongued prdkarsikd , extending itself over threeconsecutive existences. Among these four, what is the type of Pratityasamutpada that theBlessed One has here—in the Sutra of the Twelve Parts—the intentionto teach? According to the School, it is static Pratityasamutpada. Because the Sutra expresses itself in an intentional manner, whereasthe Abhidharma teaches the characteristics of things.

Why does the Sutra teach Pratityasamutpada as only pertaining toliving beings? Ignorance or aberration relating to the past, as when one asks, "Did Iexist or not exist in the past? How and as what did I exist? How is this? What are we? What will webe? For its is said in the Sutra,"Whoever, Oh Bhiksus, knows, through prajnd, Pratityasamutpada andthe dharmas produced through dependence, will not turn himselftowards the past by asking if he existed Three parts are defilement, two are action; seven arefoundation and also result.

The parts that are foundation are result: the fivethat are not foundation are cause, being both defilement and aaion innature. Why are cause and result taught at length in the seaion of presentexistence—two parts of defilement, two parts of aaion, five parts offoundation—whereas, a similar exposition is absent for the past andfuture? In the future, one has two parts for result. The World b-c In two sections, cause and result are abbreviated, for onecan infer them from the teaching of the middle.

From the teaching of the defilements, action and foundation,relating to present existence, one can deduce the complete exposition ofcause and result in past and future existences. Thus one must add new parts, and to infinity. No, for the Blessed One has implicitly indicated the cause ofignorance and result of old age and death. From defilement there arises defilement and action; fromwhence foundation; from whence a new foundation anddefilement: such is the manner of existence of the parts ofexistence or bhavdngas.

Action arises from defilement, as consciousness from attachment, orthe samskdras from ignorance. A foundation arises from a foundation, as ndmarupa from consciousness;the six dyatanas from ndmarupa Defilement arises from a foundation, as desire from sensation. Thus the teaching is complete. That the Blessed One wanted to. But incorrea judgment is not named in the Sutra in question, thePratityasamutpddasffira. Without doubt; but it is included in attachment: thus one does nothave to separately name it here.

How is incorrea judgmentincluded in attachment? Indeed, it is associated samprayukta withattachment, but it can as equally well be associated with ignorance orwith desire. Let us admit that it may be included in attachment, but canone draw from this the conclusion that the Sutra, by naming attachment,says that incorrea judgment is the cause of ignorance? In other words, Iindeed hold that incorrea judgment is included in attachment; but itdoes not follow that the Sutra could dispense with terming it a separatepart, the cause of ignorance.

One could just as well omit ignorance anddesire. Another master speaks next. Hence ignorance is not without a cause; there is no reason to adda new term:, incorrea judgment, the cause of ignorance, arise itself from. The World an ignorance designated as aberration moha.

There is no reason to explain it in clearer terms, for one reachesthese conclusions through reasoning. In fact, to the Arhats, sensation isnot a cause of desire: from whence we conclude that sensation is a causeof desire only when it is defiled, associated with ignorance. Contact,when it is not accompanied by error, is not a cause of this defiledsensation; contact accompanied by error is not produced in an Arhat,who is free from ignorance; thus the contact that Pratityasamutpadaindicates as the cause of sensation, a cause of desire, is the contact that isaccompaned by ignorance.

From there we again take up the reasoning indicated above:we prove that, according to the Sutra, incorrect judgment is produced atthe moment of contact. But, says the author, the idea that reasoning, supported on occasionby Sutras, permits omitting indispensable terms—in the incorrectjudgment in question, with the reciprocal causality of incorrectjudgment and ignorance—leads to absurdity. The true answer to this objection—that, since there is no indicationof any other parts before ignorance and beyond old age and death,samsdra is without beginning or end—is the following: the enumerationof the parts of dependent orgination is complete.

In fact, doubt withreference to the question of knowing how present existence isconditioned by preceding existence, and how future existence isconditioned by present existence, is the only point that the Sutra wantsteach: thus it says, "In order to cause error relating to the past, the future,and their interval to cease" iii. None, according to the Abhidharma. For, as we have seen above p. How can future dharmas which have not yet arisen, betermed "produced in dependence," pratityasamutpanna!

We would ask you how future dharmas which are not yet "created" krta are called "conditoned" samskrta? Because they are "thought" cetita by the vol ition cetand which istermed abhisamskdrikd, that is, "executing a retribution. They are thought by a good mind with a view to acquiring them. But then Nirvana itself will be conditioned, for one desires to acquireit. Samutpdda is the cause, whereas samutpanna is theresult; The part that is a cause is Pratityasamutpada, because, there takesplace arising from it.

The part that is a result is pratityasamutpanna,because it arose; but it is alsoPratityasamutpada, because, from it, arisingtakes place. All the parts, being cause and result are at one and the same. The World time both Pratityasamutpada and pratityasamutpanna. Without thisdistinction, nevertheless, there would be non-determination and confusion avyavasthana , for a part is not Pratityasamutpada throughconnection to the part through connection to which it is alsopratityasamutpanna.

In the same way a father is father throughconnection to his son; and a son is son through connection to his father;in the same way cause and result, and the two banks of a river. Four causes: 1. The Sautrantikas criticize: [All this teaching, from "Static Pratityasamutpada.

You say in vain that it is the sense of the Sutra. Non-knowledgerelating to the past. In the same way, the Blessed Onedesignates a state in which ignorance is the major element as ignorance. In fact,in the Hastipadopamasutra, the Blessed One does not define hair, etc,by the earth element; he does not say "What is hair, etc?

The earthelement," in which case the definition would be incomplete. The very concept of electronic music too often implies that in the twentieth century music somehow became technological, and it highlights modern sound apparatus at the cost of obscuring the material foundations of music throughout history.

Consequently, phenomena such as the unique inventions of Russolo and Harry Partch or the refunctioning of traditional instruments through unconventional playing techniques are typically explained as appendages to electronic music, rather than being seen as manifestations of an overarching category of activity. Electronic music, in short, offers too narrow a conceptual framework to encom- pass the far-flung technological extensions of twentieth-century music.

What is needed, and what I hope this book will provide, is a greater sense of continuity both between musical instruments new and old and between technology and the human conditions within which it exists. Indeed, the biggest problem with the story of electronic music is the way it tends to be told in isolation from the larger history of twentieth- century culture.

The progression from the first electronic instruments to tape machines to synthesizers and computers is depicted as a natural unfolding of technological forms; history becomes a timeline of inven- tions and innovations, laid out with all the taxonomical neatness of a scientific exhibit. But the history of instruments, when properly told, concerns not just the objects themselves but also what they promise, portend, and make possible.

My purpose in this book is not to champion a kind of technological reductionism — throwing back the curtain to reveal the machines behind the music. The study of instruments need not represent a challenge to traditional humanistic concerns; on the contrary, it could help resuscitate aesthetics in its radical, original sense: the science of perception and feeling.

On the other hand, the study of art must encompass the material means of cultural production. Tracing the contours of what has been called the instrumentality of music is not a question of exposing aesthetic experience as the subjective by-product of an underlying material reality, but rather of grasping how the spell of art is technologically cast.

While they shared a vision of the radi- cal reform of music through modern technology, they were motivated by distinct and sometimes mutually antagonistic objectives. In short, the movement for new instruments was not a monolithic project but rather an arena in which different worldviews collided. The underlying motivation for the disparate undertakings re- counted in the following pages was the search for new musical possibili- ties, new foundations of creative work.

New instruments allowed the artists of the time to explore the outer limits of artistic possibility. What they dis- cover there is difficult to measure with the old yardsticks; it is absolutely otherwise. Whether it is a dead end or the path to a new century, a narrow, arduous borderland or a vast, fertile country, no one can say. Many of the figures in this book — among them Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Rudolf Pfenninger — saw the new instruments as embodiments of modern values such as clarity, order, and control.

They embraced a rigorous, quasi-scientific ideal of music in opposition to the image of the in- spired artist inherited from the nineteenth century. But this matter-of- fact mindset was by no means universal among advocates of the new instruments. Others, such as Jorg Mager, Oskar Schlemmer, and Os- kar Fischinger, wove modern technology into a poetic and visionary worldview.

Listening to Instruments I 7 Just as the new sound technologies brought together artists of op- posing aesthetic positions, so too did they throw open the gates sepa- rating the various forms of art. One of the most remarkable effects of the technologization of sound was to draw music into the synesthetic gyre of the early twentieth century. Stuckenschmidt, for example, though trained as a composer, made his mark as a critic and impresario.

The Hungarian painter and photographer Moholy-Nagy was one of the cen- tral theorists of technological experimentation in the arts, and his writ- ings exerted a foundational influence on the search for new instrumen- tal modalities in the s. The choreographer Oskar Schlemmer, who taught alongside Moholy-Nagy at the Bauhaus, developed an abstract, puppetlike form of dance and costume design whose musical equivalent he sought in mechanical instruments.

The inventors Jorg Mager and Friedrich Trautwein, though at best amateur musicians, were able to envision new forms of music on the basis of their electroacoustic in- vestigations into sound. Finally, the pioneers of optical sound film after — Walter Ruttmann, Oskar Fischinger, and Rudolf Pfenninger — were all filmmakers by training, and they translated their skills in that medium to a new form of music-making based on cinematic techniques such as splicing and montage.

The intermingling of artistic media points toward another over- looked aspect of Weimar-era experimentation: virtually all the new in- struments of the period were based more or less closely on existing forms of media technology. In the case of early elec- tric instruments, however, the relationship to existing media technologies was more remote, and thus the act of repurposing was more techni- cally involved: radio components, intended to receive signals, could be cobbled together in new configurations to create and control electrically generated tones.

Technol- ogies do not impose upon their players a uniform technique but rather, at most, inbuilt tendencies or inertial forces — attractors, so to speak, in the phase space of creative possibility. The early twentieth century was a time of profound technological anxiety in European culture, and the movement for new instruments both reflected Listening to Instruments I 9 and shaped broader debates about technology writ large. The ori- gins of this debate reach back into the second half of the previous century, as engineers and scientists sought to raise the cultural stand- ing of their professions by showing how material progress benefitted not only the body but also the mind and spirit.

One of the foremost protagonists in this project was the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz Helmholtz viewed his research as a bridge be- tween the older tradition of the humanities, or Kulturwissenschaften, with their qualitative and holistic orientation, and the ascendant natu- ral sciences, which were highly specialized and analytically oriented. But this was just one manifestation of a larger effort by German intellectuals to demonstrate the underly- ing unity of technological progress and humanistic culture.

The engineer Max Eyth asserted that technological objects should be viewed as products of the human spirit no different from works of art. A device that turns electricity into light, Eyth suggested, is as noble a creation as a novel or a poem. He described 10 I Listening to Instruments the urge to invent in terms typically reserved for the inspiration of the artistic genius: The cause of all invention [.

It is the same force that drives the artist and the poet to his creation, without want, without necessity, but inex- orably; the Promethean spark than lives in man, the divine in us, that makes the animal into a human being and gives the human his affinity to God.

Every new invention is a new stage in the freedom attained by human- ity through the progress of technology. But this effort to make a place for inventors and engineers in the cultural pantheon was by no means unopposed. For many, and espe- cially for the cultural elite that had been steeped in the humanist tradi- tion of the nineteenth century, technology symbolized all the ills of the modern age. Rooted in the writings of thinkers such as Wilhelm Dilthey, Henri Bergson, and Friedrich Nietzsche, this was an eclectic cocktail of ideas that included disgust with the supposed superficiality of reg- nant scientific materialism, a concern for unity and synthesis over the analytic mindset of nineteenth-century positivism, and strikingly proto- environmental critiques of industrialization and the destruction of the natural world.

The valorization of technology in the early twentieth century challenged a widespread suspicion that the modern, disenchanted world of science was fundamentally incompat- ible with the expressive domain of art — epitomized, according to aes- thetic consensus, by music. Over the course of the nine- teenth century, the concert music tradition came to represent a refuge from the noise and chaos of modernity, a safe haven for the spiritual values threatened by industrialization and the emergence of mass so- ciety.

The technological enthusiasm of the early twentieth century thus signaled an ominous incursion of modernity into one of the last bas- tions of humanist culture. No less an au- thority than Curt Sachs, a prominent music historian and one of the founders of the modern discipline of organology, turned his attention to the new instruments and their significance for the music of the modern age: Today [in ] [.

Lauded and lamented, young composers are taking up the new expressive means offered by the record industry and its relatives. We ourselves have wit- nessed the maturation of these technologies: the development of the Edison 12 I Listening to Instruments phonograph to the Gramophone and the little music box to the [Welte-]Mig- non Organ has played out in our own time, and today were are astounded witnesses to tone production through electrical currents.

Nothing of the kind has ever happened before. The result is the uprooting of romanticism, a process begun in the nineteenth century and completed by the Great War. J At the piano, man, as a musician, still wrestled with the machine.

Fie could once dominate it by giving it a soul. Now the machine is ready to subdue him. In the domain of music, one of the ear- liest and most influential advocates of this ideal was the Italian-German composer and writer Ferruccio Busoni Busoni was the primary vector through which the technological enthusiasm of the early twentieth century entered into the bloodstream of European classical music. More than any other figure, Busoni was the patron saint of the movement for new instruments.

Where then do we turn our gaze, where does the next step lead? The answer, I believe, is abstract sound, unbounded techniques and technologies [Technik], tonal limitlessness. All efforts must push in this direction, in order to bring about a new, virginal beginning. He dilated at some length on technical novelties such as new scales and systems of tun- ing but mentioned only one new instrument, the Telharmonium of the American inventor Thaddeus Cahill, and described it in rather impressionistic terms.

The most prominent challenge came from the German composer Hans Pfitzner, whose pamphlet The Danger of Futurism Futuristengefahr doubled as a soapbox for his nationalist and antimodernist views on contemporary music. Busoni disavows what is right at hand, but he believes in what is nonexistent! Pfitzner argued that because music, unlike the other arts, lacks a preexistent material with which to work, composition is a purely spiritual act.

He creates ex nihilo. Just as those who first dreamed of human flight could not envision the ma- chines that finally fulfilled that ancient wish, Busoni could not foresee the course that the new music would take. Instead, he hoped to lay the foundation for future developments whose precise contours were un- imaginable from the standpoint of the present.

Here, as elsewhere, debates ostensibly about technology turned out to revolve around other matters, from the possibility of progress in art to the relationship be- tween forms of art and the society in which they exist. This attitude resonated with the optimistic progress-thinking typical of the technological discourse of the time. We need only follow its trajectory in order to see where it leads, and indeed, must lead.

To recognize the character of technification, it is necessary to look to the future. Only then can what is happening in the present moment become clear. Many modernists seemed to be more con- cerned with creating systems, techniques, and processes for making art than with producing finished works. Artists saw themselves in relation not to a historical lineage from the past but to future developments in which they hoped to play a generative role.

In , a year before Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music was first published, Lee de Forest patented his Audion triode, the invention that would come to symbolize the birth of the electronic age. No longer would gigantic spinning dynamos be needed to generate sufficient elec- tric charge to create a synthetic tone; now this could be done by the compact, lightweight, and eventually mass-producible vacuum tube. Still, the product of the techno-aesthetic fusion foretold by Busoni was bound to be something new and volatile.

By introducing the machine into the studio, composers exchanged the limited but stable instrumentarium of the nineteenth century for the bewildering possibilities of modern technology. To a greater degree than ever before, music and technology would enter into a mutually catalytic relationship, impelling each other toward exhilarating and unsettling new possibilities. The finale was an experimental stage performance called the Triadic Ballet, with costumes and choreography by the Bauhaus teacher Oskar Schlemmer and accompaniment for mechanical organ by Hindemith.

A contempo- rary account captured the strange scene as the music began: The hall was illuminated by unseen sources. It was absolutely quiet as Hin- demith wound up the device. Should one applaud? Finally a quiet applause, growing louder. These pieces, though writ- ten by a handful of different composers, shared certain stylistic traits. They were all miniatures in scale, with the longest piece clocking in at a mere four and a half minutes.

A brisk or very fast tempo and a medium-to-loud dynamic level were dominant throughout most of the compositions. In terms of genre, the pieces tended toward ei- ther preclassical contrapuntal or ornamental models. This predilec- tion for polyphonic forms, on the one hand, and quasi-improvisatory showpieces, on the other, was typical of the modernist style of the mid-i S. The audible structure of the piece quickly disappears amid a bewildering sequence of trompe Voreille effects — cloudlike agglomerations of tones, trills, parallel motion in several octaves at once, and cascading scalar passages.

At these moments the listener can no longer register individual pitches but instead perceives only tonal blurs and smears, effects that are almost entirely dissociated from the conventional timbral palette of the piano. Because the repeated patterns in the middle and upper voices are slightly out of phase with each other, the musical motion is at once audibly cyclical and subtly disorienting.

The concert in Donaueschingen was the first public manifesta- tion of a short-lived but intense engagement with the artistic potential of new instruments. Between unification in and the outbreak of World War I in , the country embarked on a rapid process of industrialization that transformed it into a technological and economic superpower. Modern technology — from airplanes and auto- mobiles to film and photography — came to represent a revolutionary force that promised, for good or ill, to reshape life in all its dimensions.

The horizon- tal axis represents time, the vertical pitch. For Bauhaus artists, the beauty of the machine symbolized the modern spirit: simplicity 22 I "The Joy of Precision" over convolution, efficiency over ornament, universal over particular. Instead of expressing a willful artistic personality, the machine was thought to manifest an unconscious and collective creative impulse.

Examples of this new tendency began to turn up soon after the war. Stravinsky, who would become the foremost exponent of the antiromantic animus of the s, could think of no higher com- pliment for a performance of his Concertino for String Quartet than to compare the motoric regularity of the ensemble to the clatter of a sewing machine. As these examples demonstrate, however, there was an important difference between the machine aesthetic in music and in the visual and plastic arts.

New technologies had revolutionized the productive basis of many of the other arts: architecture had been fundamentally altered by modern building materials such as steel and sheet glass, painting reflected the naturalistic influence of photography, and the new medium of cinema emerged directly from contemporary technological devel- opments.

In music, by contrast, the link to the machine was still only metaphorical. The classical instrumentarium had remained largely un- changed since the middle of the nineteenth century, and some modernist musicians chafed at what they felt to be unbearable technological con- straints. They sought not merely to evoke or imitate machines through music but to use machines to make music. Juxtaposition of the painting La ville by Fernand Leger and a draw- ing of a drilling machine.

Muller, Although both its advocates and its critics often regarded mechani- cal music as a symbol of modernity, the phenomenon long predated the twentieth century. The oldest sense of the term referred to automatic instruments such as music boxes, orchestrions, and automata, devices that belong to an important and underappreciated chapter in the his- tory of European music. The spindle is bedecked with tiny pins that are precisely placed so as to activate an adjacent row of metal tongues or a similar sounding element.

Provided the entire mechanism is turned at a consistent pace, it is capable of reproducing the relationships of pitch and rhythm as they are encoded in a typical musical score. By around the time of the invention of the pianoforte , keyboard instruments such as organs, virginals, and spinets were being outfitted for automatic reproduction. In his view, mechani- cal instruments ultimately served to highlight the aesthetic primacy of live performance, which could be attained only by human musicians.

But such dismissals did nothing to dampen the rage for mechanical instruments. With the emergence of the gramophone and phonograph in the early twentieth century, mechanical music took on a new meaning. Critics of the new recording technologies now used the term as a slur. In both cases, the expression had a decidedly negative connotation. The instrument that made this possible was the mechanical piano, also popularly known as the player piano.

In order to store a greater amount of musical information than was allowed by the older cylinder and its variants, the notes were en- coded as tiny perforations on a spooled paper roll. By the turn of the twentieth century, the piano player had been al- most entirely replaced by the player piano, in which the playback mech- anism was built into the instrument.

Creating an artis- tic rendition of a given roll required manual skill and close familiarity with the score, though indications were often printed on rolls to guide the novice player. These instruments thus occupied a place between the traditional piano and fully mechanical devices such as music boxes and gramophones: they enabled domestic musicianship but demanded much less skill than traditional piano playing.

In contrast to earlier player pianos, the Welte-Mignon was capable of fully automatic playback. Even the pneumatic pump at the heart of the instrument, previously operated by a foot pedal, was now electrically powered. As its name suggests, the reproducing piano also had a different purpose "The Joy of Precision" I 27 than the earlier, semi-automatic models.

Using the same basic technology as the earlier player piano, it could capture every movement of a pianistic performance and later reproduce it down to the slightest nuance. The instrument was en- visioned as an alternative to the gramophone, which in the early twen- tieth century was incapable of convincingly reproducing the sound of the piano.

These contacts were connected to an external recording apparatus, which contained a paper roll and eighty-eight quills or ink wheels attached to electromagnets, as well as two additional quills for the pedals. When a key was struck on the piano, an electrical circuit was closed, activating the appropriate quill in the recording mechanism, which left a line of ink on the paper roll for as long as the key was held down. Because the roll turned at a constant speed, rhythmic relations were captured in the spacing of the markings along the roll.

After recording, the roll was punched by hand, following the indications left by the ink markings. The company closely guarded the secret of the dynamic recording process, and all of the recording pianos were destroyed when the Welte factory in Freiburg was bombed during World War II. For the advocates of mechanical music, the fully automated piano represented the inevitable final stage of a lengthy process of technologi- cal evolution. In this view, the very design of the piano lent itself to the quantification of its motions.

Do not merely compare the piano with the violin: on the piano, even apart from the mechanism proper, the system of levers, the tones themselves are ready-made and unalterable, 28 I "The Joy of Precision" whereas on the violin each tone, according to its pitch, has first to be pro- duced.

Or compare the organ with the horn. On the organ the player in reality carries out a manual movement which has nothing whatever to do with sound-production, merely giving the signal for it to happen. It is sentimental to wail about mechaniza- tion and unthinkingly believe that spirit, so far as it is present, is driven out by mechanism. With this relatively simple modification, the piano — since the time of Beethoven the veritable icon of soulful expression — was rewired into the perfect musical machine.

Perhaps the first musician to attempt to compose directly onto the pi- ano roll was the Italian-German composer and pianist Ferruccio Busoni. Around , Busoni sketched an original work for the Aeolian Pi- anola, the famous American brand of player piano whose name would later become synonymous with the instrument in its manifold forms.

Elekfro- Motor 2. Oclrohre des Elekfro- Mo to res 3. Oelbehdlfer des GeblAses 4. GeblSse 5. Odrohr des Vorgelcges 6. LuffetnlabbAlge Forxando p. Widerstandsbalg mit Qoedtsilber- kontakt 4. Wlderstand 9. Skherheltsrentil Bolgreservolr Bob IX Regelventll. Diskanf Ledermutter zur Einstellung des Pianissimo - Anschl ages Bab Plano-Pedal Hauptventil NotenbandfOhnmg Wlndmotor Oelrohre des Wirvdmotores Stellsdirauben der Pleuelstfingchen Vorpneumatik-Regulatoren Tempohebel Vorpneumattk Tonpneumatik Preb-Sdirauben Kontaktbalg Forte-Pedai-Piveumatlk Plano- Pedalbalg Abstellhebel Dtskant figure 3.

Technical illustration of the Welte-Mignon reproducing piano. The works were premiered in a concert at Aeolian Hall in London on October 13, , following an introductory lecture by Evans. But that was the last most people heard of the music.

The appearance of this new form of mechanical music was preceded by a period of intense speculation and debate that revolved around technology, the nature of performance, and the relationship between composers and interpreters.

The primary catalyst in this musical controversy was a young composer and writer named Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt. Born in in Strasbourg, Stuck- enschmidt established himself early in the s as a tireless provo- cateur for the cause of modern music, organizing concerts, publishing widely in major journals, and earning notoriety as a polemical but per- ceptive observer of the contemporary musical scene. This was the opening salvo of a barrage of writings in which Stuckenschmidt introduced a new concept of mechanical music into contemporary discourse.

In the following two years, this essay was printed in various slightly modified forms in no fewer than six differ- ent periodicals in Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and the United "The Joy of Precision" I 31 States. In his view, the nuance and unpre- dictability of human performance were nothing but defects.

Thus, musical ma- chines such as the player piano and the gramophone could be used to capture definitive performances of canonic works once and for all, rendering new interpretations superfluous. Furthermore, Stucken- schmidt declared, in light of the economic crisis of the early s, performances of classical music had become untenable luxuries.

Me- chanical reproduction thus ensured the survival of this music, as the interpretation of existing works could be entrusted once and for all to new technologies such as the player piano and gramophone. His more radical notion was that new composi- tions could be written for mechanical instruments, conceived specifi- cally for their performative capabilities and free from the conventions and limitations of human musicianship. Rather, he was channeling the ideas of the Hungarian visual artist Laszlo Moholy- Nagy, whose writings of the early s had sketched the theoretical possibility of creatively refunctioning reproductive media such as the gramophone.

In a word, one will be able to realize entirely neiv and hitherto unknown phenomena of sound, whose effects can be confirmed and determined to the last detail by the composer himself. Like paint- ers or sculptors, they could now produce complete and self-sufficient works, free from the interference of artistic middlemen.

J that the musical work is according to its primary definition the object "The Joy of Precision" I 33 of the music-making person, whose ideal type is honored and deified in the performing artist. The composer wants to be played, and the lively actions of an artist who actively champions his work cannot be replaced with the most perfected mechanism, even if it spoke with the tongues of angels.

It is not a matter only of acoustics but of art- istry, in which the presence of the performing musician is indispensable. Mechanical reproduction estranged music from its origin in human gesture and reduced it to a meaningless play of sounds. For us the tones are all that matter.

Every note the pianist plays is reducible to three factors: the instant of attack its temporal relation to other notes , the duration, and the speed with which the hammer hits the string loudness. Each of these can be captured on the piano roll and mechanically reproduced, or even created by hand without any performance.

There are quantifiable mechanical actions, and there is the resulting acoustic phenomenon, and that is all: Ten more or less trained fingers set the keys in motion. The manner of these motions is determined by the mind of the player. But in the moment they are executed, they have ceased being mind and soul.

They are now mechanical, controllable, concrete. They can be captured, recorded, filmed, as it were. One would be hard pressed to find a soul in there. Of course, the spirit of 34 I "The Joy of Precision" the player is contained in these motions. But it is transformed, material- ized. But ears re- spond only to acoustic phenomena, that is, to tones. Thus [. While his critics insisted that the ritual and social character of concert performance were essential to genuine musical experience, Stuckenschmidt redefined music as a purely acoustic phenomenon.

The human musician, previously the indispensable vessel through which tone is borne into the world, was for him merely a potential distraction. The controversy around mechanical music was only a single front in a wider war between the deeply rooted humanism of German culture and the burgeoning new order of modern techno- science. Neatness and clarity are striven for, and dark distanc- es and unfathomable depths are rejected.

Cover of "Musik und Mas- chine," special issue of Musikblatter des Anbruch 8, no. Every- thing is accessible to man; and man is the measure of all things. Metaphysical and theological thought is taking hold in certain groups; astrology, anthroposophy and similar movements are spreading. On the other side: ever more conscious efforts for a scientific worldview, logical-mathematical and empirical thought. One constructs something with tones that is most comparable with a building.

This material of music is air, and the tools of music with which we are familiar, human voices and instruments of all sorts, are tools for working on this mate- rial. J must necessarily arrive at mechanization. J presupposes the unimportance of the emotional and subjective, thus a predominantly collectivist, typical, and objectivizing kind of intellectual orientation. The constructivist form knows no fatherland; it is stateless and the expression of an internationalized way of thought. For years our literary and graphic arts were devoted to a hysterical glorification of the ego.

OBJECTIVE MUSIC The polemical frenzy surrounding mechanical music blurred the distinc- tion between two quite different meanings of the term: first, as a means of replacing the performance of preexisting music; second, and more radically, as a new compositional paradigm conceived from the ground up as music for the machine.

Mechanical music, in this strict sense, is not simply music that happens to be played by mechanical instruments but music specifically composed for these instruments and their technical capabilities. What the hand- punched piano roll encodes is not the trace of a performance but a novel aesthetic phenomenon. Nothing slips in which is not fixed in the notes by pitch, meter, rhythm, tempo, and dynamics. Every trace of spontaneity, sentiment, and impulse is expunged. For I heard something serene, unquestion- ably self-contained and delineated: mechanical music.

Accordingly, rather than concerning themselves with the capability of performers, composers must now attend to lis- teners and their perceptual abilities. But the final per- formance of the Donaueschingen festival, a stage work called the Triadic Ballet, put a very different face on the mechanization of art. On the stage, three dancers in brightly colored or metallic geometrical costumes performed a series of puppetlike dances, their motions slow and deliberate, animated by a dreamlike seriousness.

Offstage and out of sight, a mechanical organ intoned a musical accompaniment, its motoric rhythms seeming to animate the abstract figures onstage. Equal parts formal rigor and vaudeville playfulness, the Triadic Ballet was at once a multimedia showcase for the mechanical aesthetic and a bizarre critique of the entire phenomenon.

The work was the brainchild of Oskar Schlemmer, one of the fore- most theorists and practitioners of the Bauhaus theater. He saw his theatrical innovations as a continuation of the earlier experimental works of artists such as Viking Eggeling, Alexander Lazio, and Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack, who sought to integrate sound, light, and motion in a single cre- ative vision.

In his pedagogical activities at the Bauhaus, Schlemmer also exhibited a keen interest in music and sound as aspects of stage performance. He encouraged his students to explore the possibili- ties of both mechanical and traditional musical instruments and to investigate the various tonal qualities arising from different physical materials.

Oskar Schlemmer's costume sketches for the Triadic Baitet. Source: Walter Gropius, ed. Arthur S. Schlemmer compared the result to the form of a marionette. The third is based on the laws of motion of the human body, creating shapes based on the dynamic potential of the different body parts.

The Triadic Ballet was finally premiered in Stuttgart in and underwent a num- ber of changes and different productions over the following decade. From the number three and its multiples, Schlemmer 44 I "The Joy of Precision" derived the organizing principle of the entire work. The Triadic Ballet comprises three aesthetic dimensions costumes, music, and dance. There are three dancers, eighteen costumes, and twelve dances. The work contains three major sections, each further subdivided into a series of short dances.

His decision to present the ballet in with newly composed music for mechanical organ was likely motivated in part by these criticisms. Schematic representation of the Triadic Ballet's overall structure. First published as Die Biihne im Bauhaus Munich: Albert Langen Verlag, ], the twentieth century, the organ had been regarded as a triumph in the technological mastery of sound. Hindemith noted with pride how he had wrested music of great 46 I "The Joy of Precision" figure 7.

Paul Hindemith composing on a piano roll, circa The character of his accompaniment is typical of the mechanical music genre, favoring sprightly tempos, poly- phonic textures, and virtuosic figuration. He drolly noted that the only thing missing was a mechanical audience that automatically whistled and clapped. It is only a question of time and money, in order to complete the experiment in this fashion.

Schlemmer, like Stuckenschmidt, viewed the machine not as a threat but as an opportunity for new forms of artistic expression. Their goal was not the fetishization of technology but rather a degree of formal purity that the self-consciousness of performers could only impede. But the two men diverged when it came to the broader meaning of mechanization.

For Stuckenschmidt, mechanical instruments were weapons in the struggle between antiquated artistic obscurantism and the modern scientific worldview. Schlemmer, on the other hand, preached a parallelism between technological advancement and spiri- tual depth. Consequently, potentialities of constructive configuration are extraordinary on the metaphysical side as well. After the second concert in , the movement quickly came to an end.

The once vast potential of mechanical instruments seemed to be suddenly and entirely exhausted. Stuckenschmidt withdrew from his proselytizing and penned an acerbic critique of the musical in- fluence of the New Objectivity. His motive may have been in part per- sonal: in spite of his central role in the development of mechanical music, Stuckenschmidt had not been invited to write music for the concert in Donaueschingen concert. Several weeks before the concert, he wrote a letter to Prince Max Egon of Baden, the nominal patron of the festival, claiming he was the victim of inexplicable injustice on the part of the organizers of the concert among them Paul Hindemith and asking the prince to intervene on his behalf.

Nothing came of it. But the real problem, Haass argued, is that devices such as the Welte-Mignon have been designed from the beginning as instruments of reproduction, meant to record and re-create the highly individual playing techniques of human performers. While Haass tempered his critique by noting that the Welte-Mignon was still capable of playing extremely fast and otherwise unperformable music, his article was an early sign of a growing unease among the ad- vocates of mechanical music.

Before long, they found that the unique technical affordances offered by the instrument — extreme speed, sustained volume, and sheer mass of musical activity — quickly wore thin. Mechanical music seemed perfectly suited to this purpose, because it ran at a constant tempo, just like the film reel.

Thus, no sooner had Hindemith attempted to salvage a role for mechanical music as synchronized film accompaniment than this function was eclipsed by the newer and more advanced technology of sound-on-film. Why synchronize the film reel with a mechanical organ when the music can now be recorded directly onto the sound track? The programs of the next few festivals featured various configurations of film and music, both live and recorded on sound film, but only one additional piece of film music for mechanical instruments, a collaborative piece for the Welte-Mignon by Hindemith and Werner Graff for the Hans Richter experimental short Vormittagsspuk Ghosts before breakfast.

This was the last known original piece of music for mechanical instruments com- posed in the Weimar Republic. The ideal of mechanical music would not be abandoned, however, but pursued in new forms. But they also opened up a new sound world far beyond the confines of the piano, a domain of infinite tonal "The Joy of Precision" I 51 gradations and undiscovered timbres. Another response to the failure of mechanical music was to turn to the new field of electric instruments that had opened up in the second half of the s.

In these instruments, the electrical signal emitted by vacuum tubes was converted into a mu- sical tone, allowing a new degree of control over pitch, dynamics, and timbre. The underlying principle of elektrische Klangerzeugung electric tone generation promised to expand the domain of sound, albeit with human performers ensconced at the controls. In the music journals of the time, the phrase became a catchall for contemporary develop- ments in music technology, from radio to gramophone to new electric instruments.

On a more technical register, the engineer Peter Lertes, who in published the first book-length overview of the new elec- tric instruments, used the term mechanical as a retronym to describe nonelectrophones, similar to the way the word acoustic has been used in the second half of the twentieth century. He played a curious device consisting of an L-shaped handle that he turned on its axis around a semicircular metal panel; as the handle moved, a connected loudspeaker emitted a keening, disembodied tone that glided and swooped, sounding either out of tune or otherworldly.

This device — the Spherophone — was intended to usher in a new kind of music based on microtonal pitch increments discernable to the ear but unattainable by most instruments. But by the late s, German inventors were constructing a bewildering array of electric artifacts, experimenting boldly with both playing interfaces and techniques of tone production. The result was a class of instrument so novel that it would even- tually require a new organological category to account for it — the electrophone.

Around these auspicious devices, there gathered a net- work of composers, performers, engineers, and journalistic acolytes brought together by glimmering visions of new musical horizons. Although electric music was nourished by the same technological enthusiasm that fed mechanical music, the two movements were in other ways worlds apart. First, electrophones were instruments in the colloquial sense — played live by musicians, rather than programmed and later mechanically activated — and so were more readily embraced by a skeptical musical public.

Second, if mechanical music was a manifestation of the cool, detached sensibility of the New Sobriety, electric music resonated with the apoca- lyptic spirit of expressionism, the diffuse artistic mood that flourished in the years around the First World War. Stuckenschmidt championed mechanical music as an art form suited to the modern, scientific world- view with its distrust of unseen forces, Mager and his allies heard elec- trically generated tones as manifestations of primal energy, signals from the beyond.

He grew up in modest circumstances as one of thirteen children. Having settled on the vocations of schoolteacher and church organist, Mager became serendipitously involved in instrument building in the summer of 19 1 1, when — according to his own telling — a heat wave wrenched his church pipe organ badly out of tune. He procured a set of organ pipes and carefully tuned each by ear to cre- ate a quarter-tone scale, interleaving an additional pitch between each of the twelve semitones of the conventional keyboard.

In the clutch of enthusiasm, he penned a letter to Richard Strauss inform- ing the famed composer of his potentially epochal discovery. Quarter-tone intervals were thus obtained by playing the two manuals simultaneously. He listed each of the eleven new dyads and pro- vided short characterizations of their sounds.

As early as , Hermann von Helmholtz had argued in his widely read On the Sensations of Tone that tuning systems are based less on the unchanging nature of sound than on the vagaries of human culture. Behrens-Senegalden patented in Around the same time, the German sociologist Max Weber was investigating tuning in his study of the social and historical development of European music from the standpoint of mathematical rationaliza- tion. The dominance of equal temperament exhibits the dou- ble edge of rationalization.

Syrinx, a novel pub- lished in by the writer and poet Julius Maria Becker , tells the story of a schoolteacher and church organist named Hamann and his quest to overcome the suffocating constriction of musical ex- pression imposed by conventional systems of tuning: We should cry out at the brutality of our scales.

They defraud us of the sub- tlest gradations available to the domain of sound and pin down an infinity to twelve points. They are twelve columns in a river without bridges con- necting them; the whole thing is in truth an acoustic fragment with whose "The Alchemy of Tone" I 57 imperfection the world cannot be content.

We have run it through a sieve and come up with these twelve drops, which give only a faint idea of the vastness of the primal sea. Like Busoni, he was convinced that new instruments alone could surmount the impasse music had reached in the early twentieth century. The exploration of new systems of tuning based on intervals finer than the tempered semitone, then, was more than a merely technical matter.

If the history of tuning had traced a trajectory of disenchantment, Mager suggested that enlightened technologies could reinstate the unspoiled wholeness that had been sacrificed on the altar of musical rationalization. His goal, in short, would be to capture the infinite in an instrument. The inventor was soon called to the front, where he served as a soldier and medic.

As a committed socialist, Mager later took part in the Communist uprising in Munich, but after its fail- ure he was forced to flee for Berlin, fearing prosecution for his involve- ment in the attempted revolution. Ferruccio Busoni, whose in- fluential Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music had proposed the pos- sibility of the division of the whole tone into thirds and sixths, was summoned to the city in to lead a master class at the Academy of Fine Arts, and his presence drew a number of young composers who were interested in microtonal composition and instrument building.

They all were veterans of the mi- crotonal scene: Stein had composed and published quarter-tone music as early as ; Mager and Mollendorf had built quarter-tone instru- ments in and , respectively; and Wyschnegradsky and Haba had had their microtonal works published and performed. Flowever, none were satisfied with the available means of realizing their music.

In the fall of , the five men convened to determine a course of action for the development of microtonal instruments. Although the conference ended without any clear resolution, it was a decisive event for Mager, who by this time had come to see the quarter-tone system as an unacceptable compromise between his ideals and the limitations of conventional instrumental technology. The meeting cemented his decision to abandon acoustic instruments in fixed tuning and instead attempt to gain control of the pitch spectrum by means of electric tone generation.

Shortly after inventing the incandescent light bulb in , Thomas Edison had no- ticed that the cathode inside the bulb generated a mysterious emission that blackened the interior of the glass. This finding, investigated but not fundamentally understood by Edison, was later taken up by John Ambrose Fleming, who discovered that the so-called Edison effect was a process of thermionic emission, in which an electric charge flowed from the heated cathode to the anode.

In , Fleming invented the diode or two-element thermionic valve, which found use as a rectifier, converting alternating current into direct current and thus aiding in the conversion of radio signals into audio. A relatively small signal passed to the grid would therefore regulate a much larger current between the cathode and anode, thus amplifying the original signal.

Most important, for the later development of electric instruments, he found that beyond a certain level of amplification, the Audion began to hiss, whistle, and howl. It was no longer simply receiving and amplifying signals; it was now gen- erating its own. It would set in motion a major technological shift, as the vacuum tube in myriad forms together with AC distribution systems replaced the large and unwieldy dynamos as the primary means of generating and controlling electricity.

It was in this technological context that Jorg Mager undertook his first experiments in electric tone generation in Berlin in the early s. Fie described the path to his invention in his pamphlet A New Epoch of Music through Radio, published on the occasion of the first German Radio Exhibition in Of course, not with radio transmission, but rather direct generation of musical tones by means of cathode instruments! Indeed, cathode music will be far superior to previous music, in that it can generate a much finer, more highly developed, richly colored music than all our known musical instruments!

A button on the handle closed the circuit, generating a tone for as long as it was held down. As the player turned the crank, the instrument generated a continuous, gliding transition between tones; it was thus perfectly suited to obtain the finest microtonal inflections. Recounting his joy 62 I "The Alchemy of Tone" figure 9. Technical draft of Jorg Mager's crank-operated electric instrument, circa The pan-tonal circle lay before me!

The ocean of tone in its immeasurability! The omnitonium, the musical ideal of all times! For these figures, as for Mager, the glissando was nothing less than the infinite tonal spectrum made audible. Both employed "The Alchemy of Tone" I 63 beat-frequency oscillators, a means of tone generation based on the heterodyne principle discovered by the Canadian inventor Reginald Fessenden in , which allowed for the production of a musical tone as the by-product of two inaudible high-frequency vibrations.

As is well known from the study of acoustics, two simultaneous oscillations generate a new vibration whose frequency is equal to the difference between the frequencies of the original two. The extraordinary richness of tones enables an extraordinary fullness of harmonies. This great number of tones can be most easily named with the number of their vibrations [i. All the euphonies thus discovered will be fixed, until laws for the construction of genuine consonances and disso- nances have been found.

For Mager, the music of the future, unleashed by new instruments, echoed the timeless song of the cosmos. Friends of new music, music administrators, acousticians, press, and patrons, help us to attain this, and there is no doubt that something truly great and valuable will emerge!

The money need not be a gift, Busoni wrote — it could surely be paid back with interest in the not- too-distant future. Da cosa nasce cosa [out of one thing comes another] — who knows where it might lead? Its ability to generate tones of any frequency sug- gested to him the possibility of creating synthetic timbres through the superposition of pure tones in harmonic proportions. If this effort were successful, he reasoned, all existing musical instruments would quickly become superfluous.

Finally, Hindemith pointed out the economic implications: traditional instruments such as violin and piano were unaffordable for most people, but a Spherophone built to the size of a typical radio receiver — and sold for a similar price — could find a place in every home.

With the addition of a second crank, positioned on the underside of the semicir- cular plate, the instrument was able to achieve a more conventionally musical transition between tones. Previously, to get from one tone to another, the player had to pass through all the intervening pitches, cre- ating a glissando, or release the button while moving the crank to its new position, introducing a gap of silence.

Now the second crank could be moved to the position of the new tone while the first tone was still sounding. By enabling a legato transition between tones, Mager con- formed the Spherophone to conventional playing techniques, and thus took a major step toward the mainstream acceptance of his instrument. Here the Spherophone shared the spotlight with the eponymous instru- ment of the Russian inventor Leon Theremin.

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